Where do I start?
Start by looking at the resources available on our "Literature searching" webpage. These include:
An online literature searching tutorial
An online literature searching demonstration
Guides and support material
Guidance on how to book a training session with one of the library staff.
Which database should I use?
This depends on the topic you are going to research. Start by looking at our list of useful databases.
Access to databases depends on which user category you are:
Staff and students of the University of Birmingham (including NLA participants) can access databases via Findit, the University's eresources repository. To access these resources you will need your University of Birmingham ID and Password.
NHS employees, including those who are doing work commissioned by the NHS, can access a wide range of databases via NHS Evidence. To access these resources you will need to have your NHS Athens ID and Password.
Why can't I just use Google, Google Scholar or Wikipaedia?
Google is a great Internet search engine when looking for a specific information. However, beware that it does bring up a lot of irrelevant information such as adverts, inappropriate webpages and inaccessible resources.
Google Scholar is a freely available resource to help you search for scholarly material from around the world such as journal articles, conference papers, theses and books across all subject areas. It is very easy to use and has an advanced search option which allows you to specify particular authors, journals or date ranges when searching. What’s more if you are searching from on the University of Birmingham campus or are logged into Findit you will be able to access full text articles directly from the search results.
However, Google Scholar does have a few weaknesses including its tendency to search primarily for information from the medical, scientific and technical subject areas, and the fact that it does not reveal its sources.
So, in order to carry out a comprehensive search of the literature it is best not to just rely on this source but to search other peer-reviewed databases such as Medline, Cinahl, or the Health Management Information Consortium database (HMIC).
Wikipedia is a great place to start looking for information around a topic area. However, you do need to exercise some degree of caution when using Wikipedia as its content can be contributed, or changed by anyone at any time meaning that the information contained within it might not be accurate, comprehensive or impartial.
So, when using Wikipedia it is always a good idea to both corroborate any information you find from an alternative authoritative source, and follow up some of its article references to check that they do support what is being claimed.
Why do I have to write a search strategy?
Having a good search strategy will increase the chances of you finding relevant and high quality information. This is because a good search strategy will help to keep you focused on the relevance and non-relevance of specific terms in relation to what you are looking for. It will also save you time by not having to duplicate your efforts when re-running searches on different databases.
To help formulate a good search strategy download this "search strategy sheet" which will guide you through the process.
What is the best way of identifying synonyms or keywords?
The best way to identify synonyms or keywords is to use dictionaries, textbooks, lecture notes as well as asking your tutor for advice.
Don't forget to also use the " snowballing" technique and the thesaurus functions on the databases you are searching to help identify assigned subject headings, keywords and synonyms.
What are Boolean operators?
After identifying all the keywords, synonyms and phrases for your search, you can then decide on how best to combine them by using the boolean operators "AND," "OR," and "NOT."
How do I use Boolean operators in my search?
You will use the word “OR” when you want to combine words or phrases which have the same or similar meaning.
E.g. rationing OR resource allocation OR decision making
You will use the word “AND” to combine words of different meanings.
E.g. (rationing OR resource allocation) AND public opinion
You will use the word “NOT” if you want to exclude a term from your search.
E.g. rationing NOT United States will exclude US based material.
What is the difference between a 'MESH' or 'subject' heading and a keyword?
A 'subject heading' can sometimes be referred to as either a 'descriptor' or 'MESH' heading (Medical Subject Heading). It is the name given to a set of controlled vocabulary, derived from the databases’ own thesaurus of terms, which are used to describe terms within an article or document.
A “keyword” is a word or phrase used by an author to describe a topic. These are often words which are found in the title and/or abstract of a reference.
What is truncation and should I be using it?
Truncation is a symbol (usually * or $) which can be put on the root or end of a word in order to try and capture all the different word endings.
For example a search on primary$ would find: primary, primary care, primary care trust, primary health care etc.
My search has brought up thousands of results, what am I doing wrong?
In this case you really need to focus your search. For example, ask yourself:
Can you make your search more focused by adding additional keywords or subject headings?
Can you limit your search by date, country, publication type or gender?
Can you identify any recurrent non-relevant terms which you can take out of your searching by using the Boolean operator 'NOT'?
Do I need to limit my search?
When constructing your question it is really important to think about other variables which you can use to "limit" your search results. This process will really help you to clarify the information you are looking for and so help you to find more focused results.
For example, ask yourself if you can limit your search by:
Publication date: How far back do you want to search? Some databases go back to 1946, but you might only want information going back to the last 10 years.
Age: Are you looking for information related to a certain age range? Some databases will allow you to limit your search by: infant, adult, adolescent, the elderly etc.
Material type: What type of material are you hoping to retrieve? Are you specifically looking for: articles, RCTs, websites, statistics or grey literature? Most databases will allow you to limit your search by these publication types.
Language: Do you only want to retrieve articles written in the English language? Most databases will let you limit your search by multiple languages.
Country of origin: Are you looking for UK only based information? Most databases will allow you to limit your search by country, such as; UK, US or Europe.
Should I be using referencing software
Referencing software can save you a lot of time and a lot of stress when writing up your research. For example, software packages allow you to:
Keep a record of all the databases you have searched
Set up your own personal account to store or your references
Insert your own bibliographic references and add notes
Import references from different bibliographic databases
Capture PDFs, links, files, images and web pages
Create your own searchable subject-based folders of references
Get rid of duplicates
Create a bibliography of references in a variety of referencing styles e.g. Harvard.
Interact with Word enabling you “cite while you write”.
For more information on referencing and specific referencing software packages take a look here.
Can you help me with my search?
Yes, the library runs training which can be arranged around your schedule on either a one to one or group basis.
You can attend these training sessions either in person, over the phone or online using our "Virtual library clinic".
We can also come out to your work place and carry out a group session for you and your colleagues.