For help with referencing styles or using referencing software please contact Lucy Drake
When writing out references it is normal practice to use a specific style to ensure that all your references are recorded in the same fashion making them easier to understand and to avoid plaguarism.
Referencing styles are standards for a reference that dictate where and when to use italics, full stops, and such like when writing your bibliography.
The University of Birmingham encourages the use of the Harvard Referencing System which is an author/date system and produces a result for a journal article that looks like this:
Myers, N. (2003b) Biodiversity hotspots revisited. Bioscience, 53(10): 916-917
or like this for a book:
Walshe, K. and Smith, J. (2011) Healthcare Management. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
For help with referencing go to iCite, the university website dedicated to helping students with all aspects of referencing.
You can also consult:
• Using the Harvard System at the University of Birmingham (webpage)
• Preparing and quoting references using the Harvard System (PDF)
There are many software packages that help you with referencing. They can save references from a variety of sources such as bibliographic databases, catalogues, full text journal web sites. They also interact with Word helping you to cite your references in text and create bibliographies in the style you require.
End Note and Reference Manager are computer based packages that are available to buy (members of the university can buy them at a discounted rate).
RefWorks is a web based package available free to all university mmebers - to access it log into the FindIt@Bham and search for "RefWorks".
Mendeley is a free web based package available to anybody. Mendeley has accompanying apps for iPads and iPhones and android phones.
Bear in mind:
If you use a computer based package you will not need an Internet connection to access your reference database but you will only be able to do so when using the one computer that has your software installed.
If you are using a web based package you will be able to access your reference database from any computer, but you will need an Internet connection to do so.