Microwaves with Computational Intelligence Laboratory

The research in this laboratory focuses on microwave and millimetric active circuits and active antennas, and on the applications of computational intelligence in controlling and adapting them.

MWCI laboratory banner

Research activities

  • Microwaves with computational intelligence
  • MEMS for circuit integration
  • Millimetric communications innovations


Projects and recent achievements

Advanced Linear Microwave Transmitter Architectures Using Computationally Techniques

This is a three year EPSRC funded project, in collaboration with Xilinx, Eudyna and Semelab. The objectives are to research ways in which embedded computational intelligence can be used to provide improved methods of adaptive linearization of microwave transmitters.


This is a recently completed project, in collaboration with BAE Systems, Qinetiq and Panorama Antennas, and with funding from The Highways Agency, DTI and BAE Systems. The MCI lab contribution was in the research, design and development of a range of antennas based on a laminated metallic fabrication technique. The selected antennas were successfully deployed in the system and demonstrated to the sponsors.

Wireless Pan Modules Study

This project, sponsored by Samsung, involved design of integrated transceivers for wireless PAN modules, and resulted in two patents for a novel architecture and a novel integration technique.




Academic staff

  • Dr Peter Gardner - Head of MCI laboratory

PhD/MPhil students

  • Mr M Hamid - Active and Passive Antenna for Cognitive Radio
  • Miss J Tang
  • Mr Oluwabunmi Tade - RF Front end for Cognitive Radios


Selected publications

Journal papers


M. Thian, M. Xiao and P. Gardner, 'Digital Baseband Predistortion Based Linearised Broadband Inverse Class-E Power Amplifier', IEEE Trans Microwave Theory and Techniques, , 2009


M. Xiao and P. Gardner, 'Characterisation, analysis and injection of two-tone third-order intermodulation products in an amplifier', IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, , 2008


Chan, K.M., Lee, E., Gardner, P. and Dodgson, T.E., 'Differential aperture coupling technique for passive and active integrated antenna design', IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 1(2), 458 – 464, 2007

Ee Lee, Kin Meng Chan, Gardner, P. and Dodgson, T.E , 'Active Integrated Antenna Design Using a Contact-Less, Proximity Coupled, Differentially Fed Technique', IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 55(2), 267 – 276, 2007

Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim and P. Gardner, 'Dual butler matrix active antenna system.', Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 49(12), 3004-3007, 2007

Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim and P. Gardner, 'SNR measurement in a beamforming network', Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 49(12), 2968-2973, 2007


K.C.Lee and P. Gardner , 'Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Digital Predistorter for RF Power Amplifier Linearization', IEEE Trans. Vehicular Tech., 55, No. 1, 43-51, 2006


D.P.Kimber and P. Gardner, 'High-Q Class E power amplifier analysis using energy conservation Circuits Devices Systems', IEE Proc.-Circuits Devices Systems, 152, Issue 6, 591 – 596 , 2005

D.P.Kimber and P. Gardner, 'AM frequency response of the high-Q Class E power amplifier', IEE Proc.-Circuits Devices Systems, 152, Issue 6, 752 – 756 , 2005

Steven Gao and Peter Gardner, 'Antenna/Power Combiner for LINC Radio Transmitters', IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., MTT 53, No. 3, 1083-1088, 2005


Lee, T.Y.; Gardner, P., 'Air-spaced beamforming patch antenna array', Electronics Letters, Vol 40, Issue 12, 714 – 715 , 2004

Kimber, D. and Gardner, P., 'Class E power amplifier steady-state solution as series in 1/Q', IEE Proc.-Circuits Devices Systems, Vol. 151, Issue 6, 557 - 564, 2004


Chiw, S.T.; Gardner, P.; Gao, S.C., 'Compact power combining patch antenna', Electronics Letters , Volume: 38 , Issue 23 , 1413 - 1414, 2002

Conference papers


Mury Thian and Peter Gardner, 'Enhanced Efficiency of Envelope-Tracking Based Broadband Inverse Class-E Power Amplifier.', Accepted for presentation at INMMiC 2008 (The workshop on Integrated Nonlinear Microwave and Millimetre-wave Circuits, Malaga, Spain, 2008

J.R. Kelly, E. Ebrahimi, P.S. Hall, P. Gardner and F. Ghanem, 'Combined wideband and narrowband antennas for cognitive radio applications.', IET Seminar on Cognitive Radio and Software Defined Radios: Technologies and Techniques, 1-4, 2008

Gardner, P.; Hamid, M.R.; Hall, P.S.; Kelly, J.; Ghanem, F.; Ebrahimi, E, 'Reconfigurable Antennas for Cognitive Radio: Requirements and Potential Design Approaches,', Wideband, Multiband Antennas and Arrays for Defence or Civil Applications, 2008 Institution of Engineering and Technology Seminar, 89-94, 2008


Yi Qin; Gardner, P, 'A novel digital predistortion technique for adaptive predistorter applications', Microwave Conference, 186 – 189, Munich, 2007

S.K.A.Rahim and P. Gardner, 'Beamforming networks using cascaded Butler Matrices', Asia Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, 1-5, 2007

S.K.A. Rahim and P. Gardner , 'Adaptive antenna system using cascaded butler matrices', Information, Communications & Signal Processing, 1-4, 2007

Chan, K.M.; Lee, E.; Gardner, P.; Hall, P.S, 'A differentially fed electrically small antenna', Antennas and Propagation IEEE International Symposium, 2447 - 2450, 2007

Rahim, S.K.A.; Gardner, P., 'Error Vector Magnitude Measurement On Cascaded Butler Matrices System', Microwave Conference, 2007. APMC 2007, Asia-Pacific, 2007


D Gunton, P Gardner, D Pansegrouw, J Powell, 'Miltrans - A Millimetric Data Link for Transport Applications', 13th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems and Services, 1-8, London, 2006

P Gardner, PS Hall, E Lee, TY Lee, RN Foster, 'Millimetre Wave Antennas Using Microstrip and Air Spaced Suspended Line Techniques for Vehicular Communications and Radar', Proceedings of EUCAP 2006, Nice, France, 2006

P Gardner, PS Hall, E Lee, CK Meng Kelvin, TY Lee, 'Active Integrated Antennas', IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, San Franciso, California, 2006

K.M. Chan, E. Lee and P. Gardner, 'Differential Feeding Technique for Active Integrated Antennas', 9th European Conference on Wireless Technology, 2006

KMK Chan, E Lee, TY Lee, P Gardner, T Dodgson, 'Aperture Coupled Differentially Fed Planar Inverted F Antenna', Proceedings EUCAP 2006, Nice, France, 2006

S Abdul Rahim, P Gardner, 'Broad Beam-High Linearity and High Gain-Narrow Beam Array Antenna System', Proceedings EuCAP 2006, Nice, France, 2006


K. M. Chan, E. Lee, P. Gardner, 'Compact push pull active integrated transmitting antenna', 35th European Microwave Conference, 2005

Lee, T.Y. and Gardner, P., 'Antennas and beamformers using air-spaced micromachining technology', IWAT 2005. IEEE International Workshop, 509 - 512, 2005