Aspects of Children's Medicine in the Roman Empire.
The research investigates the differences between the medical treatment of infants and children as opposed to that of adults in the Roman world. Graeco-Roman medical treatises and other literary genres, supplemented by archaeological evidence, are used in an attempt to reconstruct the nature of therapies available to non-adults. Additional questions are raised concerning ancient concepts of the pathophysiological differences between mature and immature individuals and how these influenced theoretical and practical aspects of the management of diseases occurring in the young.
Thesis: Medical Care in the Workhouses in Birmingham and Wolverhampton, 1839-1912
It will be a thematic micro-study of nineteenth-century workhouse medicine in two institutions in large industrial centres in the West Midlands, allowing a comparison of medical practice in similar urban settings. It will cover the full range of physical and mental disease and disability within these institutions, but concentrate on adult inmates. The historical approach will be a synthesis of social medicine and cultural history, incorporating ‘history from below’ where possible. Instances where the ‘voices’ of patients receiving medical care, nurses and individual workhouse medical officers can be heard will be highlighted.
The Professional Identity of Lunatic Asylum Attendants 1840 – 1914: their influence on the cultural dimension of the institution
Within the history of British psychiatry, the evolution of mental nursing is an under-researched subject. Contemporaneous depictions of nineteenth-century asylum attendants were often negative, with the allegedly dissolute nature of their character and conduct often brought in to question. A number of historians have asserted that attendants were recruited from the lowest social groups, and that asylum work was seen as a temporary or ‘last resort’ occupation. However, despite attendants being of considerable interest for reasons of abuse or cruelty, the more nuanced aspects of their work, roles, and sense of professional identity remain a relatively hidden dimension. This thesis will introduce my current research on whether a ‘cultural agency’ existed among attendants. Focussing initially on Horton Road Asylum in Gloucester, I aim to explore the extent to which asylum workers participated in creating their own imaginative, influential and material worlds within the shared experience of the workplace. I intend to re-examine the previous histories of asylum work, by exploring the possibility that attendants possessed a discernible moral and compassionate dimension to their role, constituting a key aspect in humane patient care and recovery.
Delivering nineteenth-century maternity care. Midwives and midwifery practice in the English midlands, 1796 - 1880
Midwifery history has largely focused on provision in major centres including London and Edinburgh, and provincial midwifery has been neglected. Focusing on the midlands’ counties of Staffordshire and Warwickshire, this study aims to contribute to the growing understanding of nineteenth century midwifery in the English regions. Using records from dispensaries, lying-in charities, the Poor Law, trade directories and other local sources, the aim of research is:
To provide a comprehensive overview of the work of women midwives in the English midlands,
to gain insights into the use of midwifery services by women patients, and
to compare midlands midwifery practice with other urban areas.
In recognition of the absence of a national system of registration of midwives during this period, the study has adopted an inclusive definition of the term 'midwife' with the aim of understanding the lives of women who had occasional, as well as more sustained careers as midwives.
‘Influence of the NHS on General Practitioner Postgraduate Education in the context of the Development of General Practice in Birmingham’
At the time of the inception of the National Health Service in 1948, there was little specific postgraduate education fro general practitioners. Over the last sixty years, vocational training for entrance into general practice has become mandatory and general practitioners are expected by politicians, patients and their peers to keep up-to-date with advances in clinical practice through a personal programme of continuing medical education. I intend to chart this development through the analysis of the changes in GP terms and conditions of service and the memories of GP educationalists who have led the process.
Sexual behaviour in Reformation England
I am researching sexual behaviour in Reformation England, with particular reference to beliefs and practices concerning conception. The study will focus on the preparation of the body to attempt to conceive and birth a healthy male child.
Contemporary published works such as medical treatises and advice handbooks provide the basis of the research, along with analysis of the rituals and beliefs that were thought to assist in the process.
The Ingrebourne Centre (1957 – 2002): The Vicissitudes of a Therapeutic Community during the second half of the Twentieth Century.
PhD Research Project (Part-Time) Dr. Tom Harrison
Since Homo Sapiens first lived communally, humans have struggled with the resulting exigencies of social interaction. Not every individual manages this satisfactorily, and in consequence many become labelled as mentally disordered, or criminal. Community based therapies attempt to resolve this disjunction. These approaches fly in the face of accepted traditional treatments, moving away from the standard dyadic expert/naïve-recipient model of care. They have had mixed fortunes during the past 70 years of their functioning, at present those in the National Health Service have virtually disappeared and many in the voluntary and private sector are under threat.
They are institutions that inspire great loyalty and enthusiasm from those who participate in them, and the recent closures have left many people concerned about the future of mental health care in this country. How valid is this? What are the reasons for their closure? What role have they played in influencing mental health care in general? These are all questions that underlie the present research which is into one particular institution near London.
The subject of this research, the Ingrebourne Centre, was set up, in Romford, Essex, as a therapy unit for people suffering from neurotic difficulties in 1957. The consultant psychiatrists in charge of the unit, Richard Crocket and Hamish Anderson, through the introduction of group methods enabled its rapid evolution into a therapeutic community. Some of the participants were instrumental in founding the Mental Patients Union. It continued in operation until 2002, and thus reflects the history of therapeutic communities in the UK as a whole.
Underlying the many definitions, and theories, concerning therapeutic communities there is a poorly recognised conflict between their role as social environments and their ‘therapeutic’ function. The aim is to try and understand the different challenges; both within and without, that initially enabled Ingrebourne’s development, and then led to its demise. By using this as an example it will be possible to draw some conclusions about similar units elsewhere.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in British nursing practice, 1948-2000
This research project examines approximately fifty years of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and questions the extent to which nurses practised it in this period – and their rationale for doing so. Through interviews and archival material, the study examines the relationship between CAM and biomedicine from the earliest days of the NHS and considers CAM’s changing status in healthcare provision. It encompasses themes of regulation, terminology, professionalisation, autonomy, training, the effect of healthcare technology, ideas about the body, the therapeutic relationship and the zeitgeist of self-help and alternativism in the closing decades of the twentieth century.