Following completion of his PhD in 1976, John joined the Scientific Civil Service as an urban planning researcher at the Building Research Establishment (then part of the Department of the Environment) where he was promoted twice in three years. But the arrival of Mrs Thatcher in Downing Street signalled more difficult times ahead for research in government, so John looked for an opportunity to return to academia – but one that would satisfy his interests in applied public policy research. INLOGOV, at the University of Birmingham, was well known to him and seemed an ideal working environment for his interests; so he had no hesitation in applying for a lectureship there when he spotted a recruitment advert. He was delighted to be appointed and has thoroughly enjoyed his subsequent thirty five years there.
Although at the time of his appointment his research interests and experience were primarily focused on housing and planning, in his first year at Birmingham he was asked if he might take on a project with colleagues in the Law Faculty on the organisation of the magistrates' courts of Hampshire, to which he agreed, thereby opening a door to a new specialism for him – of judicial administration and the management and governance of court systems. The project led to many similar commissions by local court services, as well from the Home Office, and to John becoming something of a national specialist in judicial administration.
With time, his criminal justice horizons have broadened; for example, he became involved in work on the probation service (taking on the editorship of the journal 'Vista: Perspective on Probation' and serving as a member of the editorial board for the European Probation Journal). He also undertook a major research study for the national charity Victim Support evaluating a set of pilot initiatives in introducing a witness care service at the Crown Court – the success of which led to a national roll-out. Then research opportunities arose in relation to police governance and accountability and much of his recent work has been on the advent of police and crime commissioners in England and Wales.
In 2002 he was invited to serve on the newly established Criminal Justice Council for England and Wales – chaired by a senior high court judge and a body that provides oversight and scrutiny of new proposals and developments in criminal justice. He has served as a Council member ever since.
In addition, he retains strong research interests in local government and public management and governance more generally. He is a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Public Administration, and has undertaken several studies of local authority regulatory functions – a subject that links well with his interests in criminal justice. His knowledge of and interests in local government also benefit from his practical involvement as a Green councillor – from 1995 at parish level in his home area; then from 200 onwards as a district councillor; and more recently (since May 2013) as a county councillor as well.
Governance and management in criminal justice, including inter-agency relations and accountability, police governance; local government, and particularly local authority regulatory activity.
Current and recent projects
Democratic accountability and police and crime commissioners.
Raine J W (2014) Shifting Power Dependencies in Criminal Justice: The Dual State of Centre and Locality in England and Wales, Criminal Law Review 6, 399-415.
Li J and J W Raine (2013) The Time Trend of Life Satisfaction in China, Social Indicators Research, 12, 3, 1-19
Raine J W and H Lloyd (2013) Public Management Reform and the Regulation of Private Business: Risk-Driven, Customer-Oriented and all Joined–Up? International Journal of Public Administration, 36, 10, 695-709.
Raine J W and P A Watt (2013) Budgetary Models, Motivation and Engagement in Financial Collaborations, Public Management Review, 15, 6, 878-898
Raine J W and P Keasey (2012) From Police Authorities to Police & Crime Commissioners: Might policing become more publicly accountable? International Journal of Emergency Services, 1, 2, 122-134.
Raine J W and E Dunstan (2011) The Local Regulatory State: A Case of Double Standards? International Journal of Public Administration, 34, 3, 159-170.)
Doolan K, Child J, J W Raine and A Beech (eds) (2011) Whose Criminal Justice: The Regulatory State or Local Community? Chichester: Waterside Press, 2011.
Raine J W and E Dunstan (2009) How Well Do Sentencing Guidelines Work? Equity, Proportionality and Consistency in the Determination of Fine Levels in the Magistrates’ Courts of England and Wales, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 48, 1, 13-3