Carol Sanders is a Lecturer in Nursing and PhD student within the College of Medical and Dental Sciences. Carol is a registered adult and public health nurse.
A Registered Nurse since 1988 with a clinical background in acute care, accident & emergency and the community (occupational health). Carol has been with the University of Birmingham since July 2000 and moved to the Higher Education sector after working in both the NHS and private sector.
Areas of expertise: health behaviours, public health, medication management, care of older people, cultural competence, moving & handling, core clinical skills and research methods.
Carol is a part time doctoral student in the School of Medicine. Her PhD aims to provide a deeper understanding of adult adherence behaviours with Smoking Cessation medications within NHS Stop Smoking Services.
Comprehensive Systematic Reviewer training: JBI and University of West London, 2012
Postgraduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, University of Birmingham, 2010
MSc in Health Sciences, (Research Methodology) University of Birmingham, 2002
BSc (Hons) in Community Health (Occupational Health), University of Birmingham, 2000
ENB 928 (Diabetic Nursing), De Montfort University, Leicester, 1993
ENB 199 (A&E Nursing) De Montfort University, Leicester, 1991
RGN, Charles College of Nursing & Midwifery, Leicester, 1988
Carol trained as a registered general nurse health in Leicester at Charles Frear’s School of Nursing before taking up posts in Leicester and Birmingham. As a clinical nurse Carol has worked in acute medicine, haematology and bone marrow transplant unit, accident & emergency, blood transfusion and community (occupation health). Carol joined the University as a research nurse in 2000 initially investigating sickness absence amongst NHS nurses. Her research interests currently are within public health; specifically smoking behaviour, smoking cessation and medication adherence behaviour.
Since 2000 she has contributed and taught on a range of undergraduate and post graduate programmes. Carol is passionate about helping to improve the quality of care for older people. Carol enjoys teaching using a variety of strategies e.g. service user & carer involvement, case studies, various technologies and e-learning. Carol is currently working with clinical educators in order to improve adult nursing students medicines management knowledge and skills. Carol has held a variety of roles within the nursing division including Adult Branch Co-ordinator and Elective Lead. Carol is currently the Lead for service user & carer involvement in nursing. Carol's enthusiasm for involving service user & carers in nurse education is help ensure that the patient's voice is heard and importantly helps shape and deliver nursing education and practice.
Carol's publications and her PhD research into smoking cessation (SC) and adult adherence behaviours aims to help contribute to the reduction of adult smoking prevalence. Adherence behaviour to therapies is acknowledged as a primary determinant of treatment success; poor adherence attenuates optimum clinical benefits and therefore reduces the overall effectiveness of clinical practice. There are few studies that have investigated adult adherence behaviours with SC medications. Studies that have assessed adherence to SC medications have found that adherence is poor e.g. taking inadequate doses or stopping use prematurely; these behaviours reduce SC success.
Over the past 12 years I have undertaken various teaching roles with different undergraduate health professionals (nursing, physiotherapy and medicine). The key teaching topics are the fundamentals of nursing, care of older people, medicines management, public health, health psychology, lifestyle topics (smoking & obesity), medication adherence, health behaviour change, nursing role to support lifestyle behaviour changes, cultural competency and research methods. Programmes I currently teach on:
o Medicines Management (UG) BNusing Yr 2.
o Cultural Diversity in Nursing (UG) BNusing Yr 3.
Other teaching contributions
o Research Methods BNusing & BPhys Yr 1-3.
o Health Psychology BNusing Yr 1.
o Core Skills BNusing Yr 1-3.
o Moving & Handling BNusing Yr 1-3.
o Long Term Conditions BNusing Yr 3.
o Principles of Nursing BNusing Yr 1.
o Medical Sociology (Beliefs about Medicines) (MBChB)
o Truth Telling (MBChB)
Carol is the Lead for Service User & Carer Involvement within the BNurs programme. www.birmingham.ac.uk/mysaynursing
Current research activity: PhD Student (University of Birmingham, College of Medicine and Dentistry)
PhD Title: Adult adherence behaviours with stop smoking medications.
It has been known for 50 years that smoking has adverse health effects; however, many people continue to smoke. Giving up smoking should be easier than ever before. In reality most smokers try to stop repeatedly, but they also fail repeatedly. Explained mostly by the extremely unpleasant nature of nicotine withdrawal (nicotine is as addictive as heroin or cocaine). Only 25% of quit attempts succeed in the long term. Adherence is poor with SC medications e.g. taking inadequate doses or stopping use prematurely; these behaviours reduce SC success. My PhD utilises mixed methods and aims to provide a deeper understanding of adherence behaviours with SC medications. Knowledge generated will be able to contribute to the development of interventions to increase adherence with SC medications.
Smoking will kill about 1 billion people in the 21st century. Although it is widely known that smoking is bad for you, smokers still tend to underestimate the risks to them personally. A range of smoking cessation (SC) treatment, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), Bupropion and Varenicline are now widely available. The PhD also acknowledges the recent anomaly Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) that is influencing smokers and will also explore the impact of e-cigarettes on SC medication adherence behaviour. Giving up smoking should be easier than ever before. In reality most smokers try to stop repeatedly, but they also fail repeatedly; only 25% of quit attempts succeed in the long term.
A mixed methods approach (a comprehensive systematic review, a retrospective cohort study and qualitative study) is utilised as both smoking and medication adherence behaviours are complex. The mixed methods approach will provide an expanded understanding of the problem of low adherence to SC medications and the negative impact this has on long-term abstinence. The connecting of the quantitative and qualitative data should help to develop a more complete understanding of adult SC medication behaviours within NHS SSSs.
Knowledge generated will be able to contribute to the development of interventions to increase adherence with SC medications and aims to provide a valuable addition to NHS SC clinical practice. Increasing the success rate of smokers’ quit attempts is a top public health priority. SC treatment efficacy often depends on patient adherence.
My PhD supervisors are Professor John Marriot (Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Therapeutics) and Dr George Dowswell (Primary Care Clinical Sciences).
Previous research activity:
Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, The University of Birmingham (2003-2006). Sponsored by Cancer Research UK (CRUK). “A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement versus placebo plus nicotine replacement for smoking cessation”.
Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, The University of Birmingham (2004-2005). Sponsored by the NHS West Midlands Strategic Health Authority. “Quality and performance of NHS Smoking Cessation Services in the West Midlands”.
Institute of Occupational Health, The University of Birmingham (2002-2003) Sponsored by Department of Health. “Managing Sickness Absence in the NHS”.
Institute of Occupational Health, The University of Birmingham (1998-2002). Sponsored by The Colt Foundation. “Sickness Absence amongst Nurses in the NHS”
Honorary Nurse Contract (UHB NHS Trust)
Clinical Link Tutor (UHB NHS Trust)
NMC Panellist (Conduct & Competency Committee) (Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC), London)
NMC Reviewer (NMC Quality Assurance Framework, Mott Mac Donald)
External Examiner Staffordshire University
Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
Carol maintains her clinical practice working in diverse Occupational Health settings in the Midlands and has links with students and mentors in practice at University Hospital Birmingham Trust.
(NB Johnson was Carol's previous surname)
Winston J, Johnson C and Wilson S (2008). Barriers to healthy eating by National Health Service (NHS) hospital doctors in the hospital setting: results of a cross-sectional survey BMC Research Notes 2008, 1:69
Aveyard P, Johnson Carol J, Fillingham S, Parsons A, and Murphy M (2008) A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement versus placebo plus nicotine replacement for smoking cessation British Medical Journal doi:10.1136/bmj.39545.852616.BE
Johnson C et al (2006) The nutritional quality of food and drink of advertised foods on UK children’s television, British Journal School of Nursing, September/October 01(01) 23-28
Croghan, E, Beirne K, Johnson C (2006). Smoking cessation: what adolescents needs and want, British Journal of School Nursing, September/October 01(01) 10-16
Croghan E and Johnson C (2005). Supporting smoking cessation and dietary change RCN Publishing company Nursing Times, April 27th, 19(33), 52-54.
Croghan E, Johnson C and Aveyard P (2004). School nurses, working practices, roles and value perceptions, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(4), 377-385.
Aveyard P, Lawrence T, Cheng KK, Griffin C, Croghan E, Johnson C (2006). A randomised controlled trial of smoking cessation for pregnant women to test the effect of a Transtheoretical Model based intervention on movement in stage and interaction with baseline stage, British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 263-278.
Lawrence T, Aveyard P, Cheng KK, Griffin C, Johnson C, Croghan E (2005). Does stage-based smoking cessation advice in pregnancy result in long-term quitters? 18 month postpartum follow up of a randomised controlled trial, Addiction, 100, 107-116.
Croghan E, Aveyard P, Johnson C (2005) Is it as easy as young people think to buy cigarettes? Comparing the results of realistic test purchases with those from trading standards test purchases, Health Education, 105 (2), 103-108.
Croghan E and Johnson C (2004). Occupational health and school and nursing: a natural alliance? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(2), 155-161.Johnson C, Croghan E, Crawford J (2003). The problem and management of sickness absence in the NHS: Considerations for nurse managers, Journal of Nursing Management, 11, 336-342.