Mrs Maria Cristina Peñaloza Ramos Economist, MA

Research Fellow
Deputy Director for Teaching

Health Economics


Contact details

Health Economics
School of Health and Population Sciences
College of Medical and Dental Sciences
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT


Cristina Penaloza is a Research Fellow and Deputy Director for Teaching MSc HEHP in the Health Economics Unit at the University of Birmingham. 

Cristina has published research papers in the fields of healthcare productivity, healthcare efficiency, measures of equity, coverage, utilization of healthcare services, evaluation of autonomization of hospitals, and decentralization of health systems.

Currently Cristina is leading (responsible) for the economic evaluation component, in the project Tasmin-SR.


BSc in Economics, 1992. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota, Colombia.

MA in Economic Development. University of Leicester, Leicester UK. 1996

Since 2011, part time doctoral studies in Health Economics at the University of Birmingham.


Cristina Penaloza qualified with a BSc in Economics from the National University of Colombia in 1992. She went on to study in 1995 an equivalent to a Masters course in Social Projects Appraisal at the Universidad of the Andes in Colombia, while working at the National Planning Department, in Bogota. During 1996-1997 she did an MA in Economic Development at the University of Leicester, funded by the Colombian DNP-ICETEX-COLFONDOS scholarship scheme.

Since 1997 Cristina has been extensively working in health economics in the UK and at international level. Cristina has broad experience as independent consultant, civil servant, and researcher. She has worked in Colombia, Chile and the UK, as health economist undertaking different roles, such as project director, health specialist, health economist, and researcher in projects financed by local governments, UNDP, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, and the World Bank.

During 2007 and 2010 she was a Senior Research Officer in the Office for National Statistics, where she was the health specialist measuring outputs, inputs and productivity of NHS. During that time, Cristina had direct involvement in six peer reviewed non-journal productivity articles, of which she was the lead author of three of the articles.

In August 2010, Cristina joined the Health Economics Unit at the University of Birmingham, where she is working in economic evaluation, and modelling of cardiovascular diseases. 


Teaching Programmes

As Deputy Director, Cristina is responsible for  assisting in a series of administrative activities aimed to help the normal development of the MSc, for example, attending external and internal exam board meetings, coordinating the peer observation of teaching, coordinating the annual dissertation workshop (defining topics, assigning topics to students), and representing the MSc director at teaching meetings, when needed.

Cristina is responsible for coordinating the Statistical modules I and II for the MSc HEHP and is highly involved in delivering lectures in other modules such as Policy and economics of healthcare delivery and Introduction to Health Economics. Similarly, Cristina delivers lecturers as part of the Master in Public Helath (MPH), Master in Health Service Management, 3rd year Economics students in the Economics Department, and at the Birmingham Clinical Trial Unit.




Postgraduate supervision

Cristina undertake activities of postgraduate supervision among the MSc in Health Economics and Health Policy. Since 2010-11 Cristina has supervised the dissertation work of six Master students, as first or second supervisor.



Cardiovascular Research, Clinical Trials, Evidence Based Health Care, Health Services Research


Economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis using Decision Trees, Markov models, Discrete Event Simulation models

Use of decision modelling in economic evaluations

Economic evaluation of the management of chronic disease.

Economic evaluation for cardiovascular disease interventions, with a focus on primary and secondary stroke prevention and management of acute stroke

Inputs for grant applications: The COPD Virtual Ward - a randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of the effects of remote symptom monitoring on readmission rates after hospitalisation with an exacerbation of COPD. 

Dissemination of results of research projects such as the Stroke project, under CLAHRC, theme 2: attending seminars, conferences, learning events, steering group meetings, where I have disseminated and discussed results from the Stroke project through technical discussions, power point presentation or using posters

Other activities

Cristina is a part time doctoral researcher. Her research work "Effects of alternative model structures and assumptions in the economic evaluation of cardiovascular disease prevention and acute stroke/TIA models: use of practical examples" aims to develop a method to systematically assess and evaluate the impact of changes in the structure and assumptions of the model in economic evaluation.

In addition, Cristina successfully finalised the Foundation of Learning and Teaching in Higher Education with a merit award, and have now undertaking the Effective Academic Practice in Higher Education module, as part of the PG Certificate in Higher Education.



Penaloza, C, “Healthcare Productivity”, Economic & Labour Market Review, Office for National Statistics, Vol 4, No 6, pages 63-67, June 2010

Penaloza et al. “Public Service Output, Input and Productivity: Healthcare”. Public Sector Services, Office for National Statistics. March 2010. Available at:

Penaloza, M. “Public Service Output, Input and Productivity: Healthcare Triangulation”. Public Sector Services, Office for National Statistics. March 2010. Available at:

Hardie, M. Penaloza, “M. Public Service Output, Input and Productivity: Healthcare - Extended Analysis”. Public Sector Services, Office for National Statistics. March 2010. Available at:

Chandler, M.S., Penaloza, M.C., “Health Care Output 1995-2007”. UK Centre for the Measurement of government Activity, Office for National Statistics. June 2009. Available at:

Penaloza, M. “Sources and Methods for Public Service Productivity: Health care”. UKCeMGA, Office for National Statistics. January 2008.

Ramirez, J.C., Penaloza, M. “La coordinación en las políticas públicas Elementos e institucionalidad”, Reunion de Expertos, Gestion y Financiamiento de las Politicas que Afectan a las Familias. CEPAL, Sala Celso Furtado. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL). 16 y 17 de Octubre 2006.

Jiménez C., Peñaloza M., Sousa Rostan G., “Cobertura, Equidad, Utilización y Calidad de Servicios de Salud en Bogota y sus Localidades, Encuesta de Calidad de Vida 2.003”. OISS-DANE. 2005. Bogota.

Peñaloza, M. “Evaluación del desempeño de las instituciones aseguradoras (EPS y ARS) en términos de su contribución al logro de uno de los fundamentos de la Ley 100 de 1993: la equidad en la prestación de servicios de salud del SGSSS”. Archivos de Macroeconomía # 284. Dirección de Estudios Económicos. Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP). May 2005.

Peñaloza, M. “Evaluación de la Eficiencia en Instituciones Hospitalarias Públicas y Privadas con Data Envelopment Analysis”. Archivos de Macroeconomía # 244. Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP). December 2003.

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