LLM Financing of International Trade

Students studying at a computerModule leader: Professor Nelson Enonchong

Module description:

This module deals with the law relating to various methods of international trade finance. It begins by considering international payments generally and risks involved. It covers international financing by various means including financing by means of a bill of exchange, documentary credits or letters of credit, financial leasing, forfeiting and factoring. It also deals with various ways by which the purchaser could protect himself through bank guarantees, especially on demand guarantees or performance bonds. The module is concerned primarily with English law, including UK legislation such as the Bills of Exchange Act. But there is a detailed examination of relevant international instruments, such as the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP 500) and the Supplement (eUCP), ICC Uniform Rules for Collection (URC 522), the Unidroit Convention on International Factoring and the Unidroit Convention on International Financial Leasing.

Seminar topics:

  • Risks in International Payments
  • Bills of Exchange
  • Collection Arrangements
  • The Nature of Letters of Credits
  • Types of Letters of Credit
  • The Main Contracts in a Letter of Credit Transaction
  • The Doctrine of Strict Compliance
  • The Principle of Autonomy & Exceptions
  • Electronic Presentation under the eUCP
  • Performance Bonds and Standby Letters of Credit
  • Other Methods of International Trade Finance

Methods of assessment

Modules on the LLM programmes will be assessed in one of the following ways. As this website is set up in advance, it is not possible to specify which method of assessment will be implemented for each module.


  • One 6000 word essay


  • One 3-hour written examination

If you'd like to find out how a module will be assessed in the forthcoming academic year please contact the LLM Programmes Administrator at Law-LLM@contacts.bham.ac.uk.



Modules and Courses are constantly updated and under review. As with most academic programmes, please remember that it is possible that a module may not be offered in any particular year, for instance because a member of staff is on study leave or too few students opt for it. The University of Birmingham reserves the right to vary or withdraw any course or module.