Professor Robert Cryer

 

Professor of International and Criminal Law

Birmingham Law School

Photo of Professor Robert Cryer

Contact details

Telephone +44 (0)121 414 6303

Fax +44 (0)121 414 3585

Email r.cryer@bham.ac.uk

Birmingham Law School
University of Birmingham
Edgbaston
Birmingham
B15 2TT
United Kingdom

About

Professor Cryer's expertise is in international and criminal law. He has lectured and spoken widely at both national and international level, primarily on international criminal law and public international law more generally.

Qualifications

  • LLB (Cardiff)
  • LLM (Nottingham)
  • PhD (Nottingham

Teaching

  • Criminal Law (LLB)
  • International Criminal Law (LLM)
  • Public International Law (LLB)
  • Transnational Criminal Law (LLM)
  • International Humanitarian Law (LLM)
  • Theory of Criminal Law (LLM)
  • International HUman Rights Law (LLM)

 

Postgraduate supervision

  • International law
  • Criminal law

Current doctoral supervision

Professor Cryer is currently supervising three doctoral students undertaking research in the following areas:

  • Aut dedere aut judicare as a customary rule
  • The UN member states and individuals sharing international responsibility for the serious violation of international law committed during peace support operations
  • Is the new partial defence of loss of control; the solution to the problems identified with provocation?
  • The Jus Post Bellum
  • Iran and Non-Proliferation
  • Causation in Criminal Law
  • Transnational Human Rights Litigation

Research

His major research interests are in international law and criminal law. In addition to a number of articles and book chapters he is the author of Prosecuting International Crimes: Selectivity and the International Criminal Law Regime (Cambridge: CUP, 2005 (pb 2011)), which discussed the interrelationship of the personal and material jurisdiction of international criminal tribunals. He also has written  on war crimes trials in Asia, most notably as the  co-author (with Neil Boister) of The Tokyo International Military Tribunal: A Reappraisal (Oxford: OUP, 2008), which has contributed to the renaissance of scholarship on this Tribunal. He is also co-author (with Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson and Elizabeth Wilmshurst) of the widely used textbook An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge: CUP, 3rd ed,. 2014). He is co-editor of the Journal of Conflict and Security Law and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of International Criminal Justice and is currently working on a number of projects, including a book on the application of international humanitarian law by international criminal tribunals, and other pieces on the sources and history of international law.

Publications

Books

  • International Criminal Law: Classic Readings (London Routledge, forthcoming 2015) 4 Volumes, in press)(co-edited with Antonio Cassese, Florian Jeßberger, and with Urmila Dé)(Co-author of introduction, 10,000 words, with Florian Jeßberger).
  • The Law of Armed Conflict Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello: (Routledge, London, forthcoming 2015) 4 Volumes (in press), (co-edited with Christopher Henderson)(co-Author of Introduction, 15,000 words, with Christian Henderson).
  • An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge: CUP, 3rd ed., 2014)(2nd ed., 2010, 1st ed.. 2007) 616pp +lxxxvii ISBN 978-1-107-06590-1(hb) ISBN 978-1-107-69883-3 (pb) with Elizabeth Wilmshurst, Håkan Friman and Darryl Robinson. The first edition was translated into Macedonian and released as BOBEД BO MEЃHAPOД KPИBИЧHO ПPABO И KPИBИЧHA ПPOЦEДYPA (Macedonia: Tabernakl, 2010).
  • Research Methodologies in International and EU Law (Oxford: Hart, 2011) 142pp +viii.  ISBN 978-1-841-13235-8 (pb.) (Co-authored with Tamara Harvey, Bal Sokhi-Bulley, and with Alexandra Bohm).
  • The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice (Oxford: OUP, 2009) 1,096pp, ISBN 978-0-19-923831-6 (hb), ISBN 978-0-19-923832-3 (pb) co editor, with Antonio Cassese (editor-in chief), and 15 others.
  • The Tokyo International Military Tribunal: Judgment and Documents (Oxford: OUP, 2008), pp.1470 +lxxxiv, ISBN 978-0-19-954192-8, co-editor and co-author of introduction of c30,000 words (with Neil Boister).
  • The Tokyo International Military Tribunal: A Reappraisal (Oxford: OUP, 2008) with Neil Boister 370pp + xvii, ISBN 978-0-19-927852-7,
  • A translation into Japanese was published by Nippon Hyoronsha (Tokyo) in 2012. A translation into Chinese has been commissioned by Shanghai University Press for publication in 2015.
  • Prosecuting International Crimes: Selectivity in the International Criminal Law Regime (Cambridge: CUP, 2005) (360pp + xxviii). ISBN 0-5218-2474-5, (paperback reissue 2011)
  • The International Criminal Court (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005) (524pp +xxv) contributor, joint editor and joint author of introduction (c10,000 words), with Olympia Bekou.

Journal Articles and Book Chapters

  • ‘Then and Now/Now and Then, Tokyo, Command Responsibility and Modern International Law’ in Kirsten Sellars (ed.) Trials for International Crimes in Asia Cambridge: CUP, forthcoming 2015)(8,000 words)
  • ‘The Future of Global Transational Criminality and International Criminal Justice’ in M. Cherif Bassiouni (ed.) The Future of International Criminal Justice (forthcoming, 2015)(8,000 words).
  • ‘Peacekeepers: Victims, Criminals, and Sometimes Both’ (2015) 19 Journal of Conflict and Security Law)(with Natalia Perova)(forthcoming, 12,000 words).
  • ‘The ICRC and Direct Participation in Hostilities: See a Little Light’ in Robin Geiss (ed.), The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement at 150:
    Developing and Clarifying International Humanitarian Law
    (Cambridge: CUP, 2015 forthcoming, 12,000 words).
  • The Role of International Criminal Prosecutions in Increasing Compliance with International Humanitarian Law in Contemporary African Conflicts’ in Heike Krieger (ed.)  Inducing Compliance with International Humanitarian Law: Lessons from the African Great Lakes Region (Cambridge: CUP, forthcoming 2015)(12,000 words).
  • ‘The International Criminal Court and its Relationship to Third States’ in Carsten Stahn (ed.), The Practice of the International Criminal Court (Oxford: OUP, forthcoming 2015) (11,500 words)
  • ‘The Legal Framework for Defending Transport Networks Against Terrorist Attack’ in Centre of Excellence, Defence Against Terrorism (COEDAT) (ed.), Transport Networks and Terrorism (Ankara: COEDAT, forthcoming 2015) (4,000 words).
  • ‘Individual Responsibility for Violations of the Law of Armed Conflict’ in Timothy L.H. McCormack and Rain Livoja (eds.) Research Handbook on The Law of Armed Conflict (London: Routledge, forthcoming 2015)(10,000 words).
  • ‘Come Together: Civil and Criminal Jurisdiction in Kiobel’ (2014) 12 Journal of International Criminal Justice 579-592.
  • The Relationship of International Humanitarian Law and War Crimes: International Criminal Tribunals and Their Statutes’ in Caroline Harvey, James Summers and Nigel White (eds.), Contemporary Challenges to The Laws of War: Essays in Honour of Professor Peter Rowe (Cambridge: CUP, 2014) 117-146.
  • ‘The Role of International Criminal Prosecutions in Increasing Compliance with International Humanitarian Law in Contemporary Conflicts’ (2014) 44 Israel Yearbook of Human Rights 145-175.
  • ‘Imputation and Complicity in Common Law States: A (Partial) UK View’ (2014) 12 Journal of International Criminal Justice 267-281.
  • ‘Witness Tampering in International Criminal Tribunals’ (2014) 27 Leiden Journal of International Law 191-203.
  • ‘Human Rights and International Criminal Law’ in Daniel Moeckli, Sangeeta Shah, and Sandesh Sivakumaran, with David Harris (eds.), International Human Rights Law (Oxford: OUP, 2nd ed., 2014) 496-512. This is an updated version of the chapter in the 1st edition noted below). 
  • ‘International Criminal Law’ in Malcolm Evans (ed.), International Law (Oxford: OUP, 4th ed, 2014) 752-782 This is an updated version of the chapter in the 3rd edition, noted below).
  • ‘War Crimes’ in Christian Henderson and Nigel White (eds.), Research Handbook on International Conflict and Security Law: Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello and Jus Post Bellum (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2013) 467-498.
  • ‘International Criminal Justice in Historical Context: The Post World War II Trials and Modern International Criminal Justice’ in Gideon Boas, William Schabas and Michael Scharf (eds.) International Criminal Justice: Legitimacy and Coherence (London: Edward Elgar, 2012) 145-189.
  • ‘International Criminal Tribunals and The Sources of International Law: Antonio Cassese’s Contribution to the Canon’ (2012) 10 Journal of International Criminal Justice 1045-1061.
  • Law and The Jus Post Bellum: Counselling Caution’ in Larry May and Andrew Forcehimes (eds.), Law, Morality and the Jus Post Bellum (Cambridge: CUP, 2012) 223-249.
  • ‘Selectivity in International Criminal Law’ in Faria Domb (ed.) Modern Perspectives on International Criminal Law, (London: BIICL, 2011) 153-192. This is an updated version of Chapter 4 of Prosecuting International Crimes.
  • ‘Principles of Liability for Collective Crimes in Common Law Countries’ in Olivier de Frouville (ed.) Punir les Crimes de Masse: Enterprise Criminelle Commune ou Co-Action 38-60 (Brussels: Brulyant, 2011) (with Adrian Hunt)
  • ‘Darfur: Complementarity as the Drafters Intended?’ in Carsten Stahn and Mohamed el Zeidy (eds.), The International Criminal Court and Complementarity: From Theory to Practice 1097-1119 (Cambridge: CUP, 2011).
  • ‘Superior Scholarship on Superior Orders’ (2011) 9 Journal of International Criminal Justice 959-972.
  • ‘Philosophy and International Criminal Law’ in Alexander Orakhelashvili (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophy of International Law 232-267 (London: Edward Elgar, 2011) 232-267.
  • ‘The ad hoc Tribunals and Command Responsibility: A Quiet Earthquake’ in Shane Darcy and Joseph Powderly, (eds.), Judicial Creativity in International Criminal Tribunals (Oxford: OUP, 2010) 159-183.
  • ‘Röling in Tokyo: A Dignified Dissenter’ in (2010) 8 Journal of International Criminal Justice 1109-1126 reprinted in Yuki Tanaka,Timothy L.H. McCormack and Gerry Simpson, (eds.), Beyond Victor’s Justice: The Tokyo War Crimes Trial Revisited (The Hague: Brill, 2010) 109-126.
  • ‘Drug Crimes and Money Laundering’ in William Schabas and Nadia Bernaz (eds.), Routledge Handbook of International Criminal Law 181-194 (London: Routledge, 2010).
  • ‘The Coroners and Justice Act 2009 and International Criminal Law: Backing Into the Future?’ (2010) 58 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 803-813 (with Paul David Mora).
  • ‘International Criminal Law’ in Malcolm Evans (ed.), International Law (Oxford: OUP, 3rd ed, 2010) 753-783.
  • ‘Human Rights and International Criminal Law’ in Daniel Moeckli, Sangeeta Shah, and Sandesh Sivakumaran, with David Harris (eds.), International Human Rights Law (Oxford: OUP, 2010) 540-559.
  • ‘Case Concerning Certain Questions of Criminal Cooperation (Djibouti v France)’ (2010) 58 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 193-205 (with Ioannis Kalpouzos).
  • ‘The Interplay of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law: The Approach of the ICTY’ (2009) 14 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 511-527.
  • ‘Royalism and The King: Article 21 of the Rome Statute and the Politics of Sources’ (2009) 12 New Criminal Law Review 390-405.
  • ‘Commentary, East Timor Serious Panel Tribunal Judgments’, in Göran Sluiter and Andre Klip (eds.), Annotated Leading Cases of the International Criminal Tribunals: Volume XVI (Antwerp: Intersentia, 2009) 495-503.
  • ‘Complementarity in Practice’ in Yan Ling (ed.), Making Peace Through Justice: Essays on the New Development of International Criminal Law (Beijing: World Affairs Press, 2009) 49-71.
  • ‘‘The Definitions of Crimes in the Al- Bashir Arrest Warrant Decision’ (2009) 7 Journal of International Criminal Justice 283-296.
  • ‘Prosecuting the Leaders: Promises, Politics and Pragmatics’ (2009) 1 Göttingen Journal of International Law 45-75.
  • ‘The Doctrinal Foundations of International Criminalization’ in M. Cherif Bassiouni (ed.), International Criminal Law Volume I: Crimes (New York: Transnational, 3rd ed., 2008) 107-128.
  • ‘An Overview of the Law on Terrorism’ and ‘The Future of Legal Aspects of Combating Terrorism’ in COEDAT (ed.), Law and Terrorism (The Netherlands, IOS Press, 2008) 15-22 and 141-8.
  • ‘International Humanitarian Law’ and ‘Reprisals’ in Peter Cane and Joanne Conaghan (eds). The Oxford Companion To Law (Oxford: OUP, 2008) 614-6 and 1011-2.
  • ‘The International Criminal Court and Its Relationship to Third States’ in Göran Sluiter and Carsten Stahn (eds.) The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court (The Hague: Brill, 2008) 115-133.
  • ‘Neither Here nor There? The Status of International Criminal Jurisprudence in the International and UK Legal Orders’ in Michael Bohlander and Kaiyan Kaikobad (eds) International Law and Power: Perspectives on Legal Order and Justice: Essays in Honour of Colin Warbrick (The Hague: Brill, 2008) 183-206.
  • ‘The Security Council and the International Criminal Court: An Uneasy Relationship?’  in M. Cherif Bassiouni, José Doria, Hans-Peter Gasser and Nikolai Jdanov (eds.), The Legal Regime of the International Criminal Court: Essays in Memory of Igor Blishchenko (The Hague: Brill, 2008) 457-486 (with Nigel White).
  • ‘A Message From Elsewhere: Witnesses Before International Criminal Tribunals’ in Paul Roberts and Mike Redmayne (eds.), Innovations In Evidence Law (Oxford: Hart, 2007) 381-401 (an updated, revised and theorised version of the article in The Law and Pratice of International Tribunals noted below).
  • ‘The Core Crimes and ICC Cooperation in England and Wales’ (2007) 5 Journal of International Criminal Justice 441-59 (jointly with Olympia Bekou).
  • ‘Commentary: Prosecutor v Vasiljević’, in Göran Sluiter and Andre Klip (eds.), Annotated Leading Cases of the International Criminal Tribunals: Volume XI (Antwerp: Intersentia, 2007) 688-95.
  • ‘The International Criminal Court and Universal Jurisdiction: A Close Encounter?’ (2007) 55 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 49-68 (jointly with Olympia Bekou). 
  • ‘Of Custom, Treaties, Scholars and the Gavel: The Impact of the International Criminal Tribunals on the ICRC Customary Study’ (2006) 11 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 239-263.
  • Prosecutor v Galićand the War Crime of Terror Bombing’ (2005-6) 2 IDF Law Review 73-102.
  • ‘Commentary: ‘Special Court for Sierra Leone Constitutionality Decisions’ in Goran Sluiter and Andre Klip (eds.), Annotated Leading Cases of the International Criminal Tribunals: Volume IX (Antwerp: Intersentia, 2006) 56-62.
  • ‘Sudan, Resolution 1593 and International Criminal Justice’ (2006) 19 Leiden Journal of International Law 195-222.
  • ‘The Security Council and International Humanitarian Law’, in Susan Breau and Agnieszka Jachec-Neale (ed.), Testing the Boundaries of International Humanitarian Law (London: BIICL, 2006) 245-275.
  • ‘The Use of Force Against Iraq, Do the Side Effects Justify the Means?’ (2006) 7 Theoretical Enquiries in Law 9-41 (jointly with Andrew Simester).
  • ‘State Sovereignty vs International Criminal Law: Another Round?’ (Review Essay) (2005) 15 European Journal of International Law 979-1000.
  • ‘Aggression at the Court of Appeal’ (2005) 10 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 209-230.
  • ‘Accountability in Post-Conflict Societies: A Matter of Judgment, Practice or Principle?’ in N.D. White (ed.), The United Nations and Human Rights Protection in Post-Conflict Situations (Manchester: MUP, 2005) 267-289.
  • ‘Superior Orders in the International Criminal Court’ in Nigel D. White, Richard Burchill and Justin Morris (eds.), Essays On Conflict and Security Law in Memory of Hilaire McCoubrey (Cambridge: CUP, 2005) 49-67.
  • ‘Incitement’ and ‘Attempt’ in Dinah L. Shelton (ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity (New York: Macmillan, 2004) 493-500 and 95-96, respectively.
  • ‘General Principles of Liability in International Criminal Law’ in Dominic McGoldrick, Peter Rowe and Eric Donnelly (eds.), The International Criminal Court: Legal and Policy Issues (Oxford: Hart, 2004). 233-262.  
  • ‘Hague Law Comes Home: Prosecuting Weapons Offences at the International Criminal Court’ [2003] Acta Juridica 238-257 [reprinted in Adele Erasmus et al (eds.), Criminal Justice in a New Society (Cape Town: Juta, 2003)].
  • ‘Witness Evidence in International Criminal Tribunals’ (2003) 3 The Law and Practice of International Tribunals 411-439.
  • ‘The Security Council and the International Criminal Court: Who’s Feeling Threatened?’ (2002) 8 Yearbook of International Peacekeeping 143-170 (jointly with Nigel D. White).
  • ‘Human Rights and the Question of International Courts and Tribunals’ in Michael C. Davis, Wolfgang Dietrich, Bettina Scholdan and Dieter Sepp (eds.) International Intervention in the Post-Cold War World (New York: M.E Sharpe 2003) 60-79.
  • ‘Terrorism and the International Criminal Court’ (2003) 82 Reform: Journal of the Australian Law Reform Commission 14-16, 70.
  • ‘Déjà vu in International Law’ (Review Essay) (2002) 65 Modern Law Review 931-949.
  • ‘Franckian Fairness and International Economic Law’ in Asif H. Qureshi (ed.), Perspectives in International Economic Law (The Hague: Kluwer, 2002). 211-233.
  • ‘The Fine Art of Friendship: Jus in Bello in Afghanistan’ (2002) 7 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 37-83.
  • ‘Implementation of the International Criminal Court Statute in England and Wales’ (2002) 51 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 733-743.
  • ‘A ‘Special Court’ for Sierra Leone?’ (2001) 50 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 435-446.
  • ‘The Boundaries of Liability in International Criminal Law, or ‘Selectivity by Stealth’’ (2001) 6 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 3-31 [reprinted in G.J. Simpson (ed.), War Crimes: Library of Essays on Law and Legal Theory (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004)].
  • ‘Unilateral Enforcement of Resolution 687: A Threat too Far?’ (1999) 29 California Western International Law Journal 243-282 (jointly with Nigel D. White).
  • ‘Commentary on the Rome Statute: A Cadenza for the Song of Those Who Died in Vain?’ (1998) 3 Journal of Armed Conflict Law 271-286.
  • ‘One Appeal, Two Philosophies, Four Opinions and a Remittal’ (1997) 2 Journal of Armed Conflict Law 193-208.
  • ‘The Security Council and Article 39: A Threat to Coherence?’ (1996) 1 Journal of Armed Conflict Law 161-195.

 

Book Reviews

  • Heikelina Verrijn Stuart and Marlise Simons (eds.) ‘The Prosecutor and the Judge: Benjamin Ferencz and Antonio Cassese: Interviews and Writings’ Reviewed for (2010) 15 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 203-207.
  • Myra Williamson, ‘Terrorism, War and International Law’ Reviewed for (2009) 14 Journal of Conflict and Security Law383-389.
  • Jack L. Goldsmith and Eric A. Posner, ‘The Limits of International Law’ Reviewed (as a short review essay entitled ‘The Limits of Objective Interests’) for (2006) 82 International Affairs183-188
  • Christian Joerges and Navraj Singh Ghaliegh (eds.), ‘Darker Legacies of Law in Europe: The Shadow of National Socialism and Fascism Over Europe and its Legal Traditions’ Reviewed for (2006) 19 European Public Law162-164.
  • Malgosia Fitzmaurice and Dan Sarooshi (eds.) ‘Issues of State Responsibility Before International Tribunals’ Reviewed for (2005) 75 British Yearbook of International Law540-541.
  • Simon Halliday and Patrick Schmidt (eds.), ‘Human Rights Brought Home: Socio-Legal Perspectives on Human Rights in the National Context’ Reviewed for (2005) 5 Human Rights Law Review195-198.
  • A.P.V. Rogers, ‘Law on the Battlefield’ (2nded.) reviewed for (2005) 10 Journal of Conflict and Security Law121-123.
  • D Hirsch, ‘Law Against Genocide: Cosmopolitan Trials’ reviewed for (2004) 8 International Journal of Evidence and Proof269-273.
  • K. Dörmann, ‘Elements of War Crimes in the Rome Statute’ reviewed for (2004) 15 King’s College Law Journal 182-188.
  • L. Reydams, ‘Universal Jurisdiction’ reviewed for (2004) 9 Journal of Conflict and Security Law127-132.
  • K. O’Donovan and G.R. Rubin (eds.), ‘Human Rights and Legal History’ reviewed for (2003) 3 Human Rights Law Review 355-356.
  • L. Zegveld, ‘The Accountability of Armed Opposition Groups in International Law’ reviewed for (2004) 53 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 278-280.
  • R. May and M. Wierda, ‘International Criminal Evidence’ reviewed for (2003) 7 International Journal of Evidence and Proof 216-219.
  • L. Moir, ‘The Law of Internal Armed Conflict’ Reviewed for (2002) 7 Journal of Conflict and Security Law140-144.
  • G. Kirk-McDonald & O. Swaak-Goldman (eds.), ‘Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law’ reviewed for (2001) 6 Journal of Conflict and Security Law289-292.
  • C. Bell, ‘Human Rights and Peace Agreements’ reviewed for (2001) 1 Human Rights Law Review169-172.
  • N.H.B. Jørgensen, ‘The Responsibility of States for International Crimes’ reviewed for (2001) 64 Modern Law Review 650-655.
  • A. Aust, ‘Modern Treaty Law and Practice’ reviewed for (2001) 64 Modern Law Review 149-150.
  • M. Byers (ed.), ‘The Role of Law in International Politics: Essays in International Relations and International Law’ reviewed for (2000) 63 Modern Law Review 929-933.
  • O. Triffterer (ed.), ‘Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court’ reviewed for (2000) 5 Journal of Conflict and Security Law293-294.
  • G.S. Goodwin-Gill & S. Talmon (eds.), ‘The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie’ reviewed for (2000) 63 Modern Law Review 631-632.
  • M.C. Bassiouni, ‘Crimes Against Humanity in International Criminal Law’ reviewed for (2000) 5 Journal of Conflict and Security Law126-130.
  • C. Antonopoulos, ‘The Unilateral Use of Force in International Law’ reviewed for (1999) 4 Journal of Armed Conflict Law 247-251.
  • V. Morris & M.P. Scharf, ‘The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda’ reviewed for (1999) 4 Journal of Armed Conflict Law166-168.
  • D. Warner (ed.), ‘Human Rights and Humanitarian Law: The Quest for Universality’ reviewed for (1998) 3 Journal of Armed Conflict Law294-296.
  • M. Osiel, ‘Mass Atrocity, Collective Memory and the Law’ reviewed for (1998) 3 Journal of Armed Conflict Law 291-294.
  • S. Ratner & J. Abrams, ‘Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Criminal Law’ reviewed for (1998) 3 Journal of Armed Conflict Law288-291.
  • L. Sunga, ‘The Emerging System of International Criminal Law’ reviewed for (1998) 3 Journal of Armed Conflict Law121-123.
  • T.L.H. McCormack & G.J. Simpson (eds.), ‘The Law of War Crimes’ reviewed for (1997) 2 Journal of Armed Conflict Law104-107.

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