Dr Sam Lucas PhD, BSc, BPhEd (hons)

Dr Sam Lucas

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences
Lecturer in Exercise and Environmental Physiology

Contact details

Address
School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences
University of Birmingham
Edgbaston
Birmingham
B15 2TT
UK

Dr Sam Lucas is an integrative physiologist with a primary research interest in brain health; specifically he is interested in how cerebral blood flow is regulated in health and disease, and the resultant impact on brain function (e.g., neurophysiological and psychological/behavioural responses). His broader interests and expertise are in the areas of exercise and environmental physiology, as well as physical activity and health. 

Qualifications

2008 Doctor of Philosophy, University of Otago

2002 Bachelor of Science (Physiology), University of Otago

2001 Bachelor of Physical Education (Honours, 1st Class), University of Otago

Biography

Dr Lucas completed his PhD in 2008 at the University of Otago, New Zealand. His thesis investigated the physiological and cognitive consequences of prolonged exercise. Dr Lucas then had 5 years post-doctoral training focused primarily around techniques to measure cerebral perfusion and understanding the integrative mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow during stress and how this may be altered in different populations.

He joined SportExR as a Lecturer in March 2013 and also holds an Honorary Lectureship in the Department of Physiology, University of Otago, New Zealand. 

Teaching

Dr Lucas contributes across all three undergraduate years within the Sport and Exercise Sciences degree programme, teaching fundamental and applied physiology principles in both lecture- and laboratory-based settings.

Modules Dr Lucas contributes to:

1st year: Human Physiology; Physical Activity and Health

2nd year: Exercise Physiology

3rd year: Environmental Physiology; Exercise is Medicine

In addition, he supervisors a number of 3rd year, taught MSc and MRes dissertation projects each year within the School, as well as contributes to other degree programmes across campus (e.g., Biomedical Science BSc). 

Postgraduate supervision

Current Students:

Birmingham

  • Claire Burley PhD
  • Neil Dallaway PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Michael Clancy PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Shoug Yousef Y Al Humoud PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Jassim Echrish PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Karen Thomas (pre-reg) MSc Physiotherapy
  • Alexandra Medwell (pre-reg) MSc Physiotherapy

New Zealand

  • Kate Thomas PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Ashley Akerman PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Robert Creasy PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Carl Bradford PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Matthew Shallcrass MPhEd (co-supervisor)

Graduates

  • Blake Perry PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Nia Lewis PhD (co-supervisor)
  • Rhodri Parfitt (pre-reg) MSc Physiotherapy
  • Monique Francois MPhEd (co-supervisor)
  • Matthew Graham MPhEd (co-supervisor)
  • Hayley Guiney MSc (co-supervisor)

See publications section below for published work related to these projects

Research

Dr Lucas is an integrative physiologist whose primary research focus is on the integrative mechanisms that regulate human cerebral blood flow in health and disease. He has a specific interest in how cerebral blood flow is regulated with ageing and during stress (esp. high altitude, thermal, orthostatic, exercise and cognitive) and how this impacts on function (e.g., neurophysiological and psychological/behavioural responses).

Dr Lucas has 15 years of research experience and has developed a broad range of research skills and expertise, which underpins his inter- and multidisciplinary approach to research. To date, Dr Lucas has published 76 peer-reviewed publications, as well as 122 conference abstracts. His published work is in leading journals within the field, including papers which have been widely cited (3 publications more than 100 times). Dr Lucas has received awards for work presented at national and international conferences, and has been awarded early career awards in the UK and New Zealand. Graduate students working with him have also won such awards, as well as research grant awards (e.g., Claire Burley: CANTAB Research Grant).

As Principal or co-Investigator, Dr Lucas has been awarded >£700,000 worth of research funding across a range of sources, including research councils, charities, and sporting, government and commercial bodies. Dr Lucas is a key principal investigator involved in establishing the new Centre of Human Brain Health (CHBH) at the University, and recently co-led a successful College Strategic Equipment bid for a functional NIRS system (worth £460,000). In 2015, Dr Lucas obtained significant funding (£110,700) to upgrade the Environmental Chamber within the School, which now operates as a University Facility for which he is the director of. The upgrade of the chamber is the first stage in establishing the Birmingham Environmental Physiology Research and Education Centre, which is a collaborate initiative led by Drs Sam Lucas, Rebekah Lucas and George Balanos to establish a translational research and educational programme that uses mechanistic exercise and environmental physiology to address health needs in the local and global community.

Since arriving at UoB, Dr Lucas has established inter- and multidisciplinary collaborations with clinicians, optical bioengineers/computer scientists, MR physicists/researchers and other physiologists that have resulted in a series of studies and publications that include development and testing of new neuroimaging technology, validation and comparison of different neuroimaging methodologies and analysis approaches, as well as examining brain vascular responses to novel exercise, cognitive and environmental stress. Current projects in the Lucas laboratory are focused on:

  • Investigating age- and disease-related changes to the regulation of brain perfusion and the functional consequences;
  • Multimodal assessment of brain health;
  • Exercise strategies and complementary approaches (e.g., environmental stress, nutrition) that optimise health (esp. brain health).

In addition to this primary research focus, Dr Lucas is involved in numerous projects investigating various aspects of health and performance. He collaborates widely with colleagues in the School, across campus and has a number of long-standing, successful national and international collaborations.

Research profiles: ORCID, Research Gate, Google Scholar  

Other activities

Professional distinctions and memberships:

2014   The UK Physiological Society’s Early Career Award

2014   Organiser of British Science Festival event (titled: Too much stress, not enough exercise: The curse of modern living).

2013   Co-Principal organiser of XV International Conference of Environmental Ergonomics (Queenstown, 11-15th Feb 2013). First time held in southern hemisphere.

2011   Winner of Fellow Award at the 17th International Hypoxia Symposia

2010   The UK Physiological Society’s International Junior Research Grant

2009   Awarded New Zealand National Heart Foundation 3-year Research Fellowship

2006   Sport and Exercise Science New Zealand Best Emerging Scientist Award

Member of The UK Physiological Society and the European College of Sport Science

Conference/Invited Talks (during the past 5 years)

Invited symposium speaker at UK Physiology Society annual meeting, 8th July 2015 (talk entitled: Optimising exercise strategies for the brain).

Invited talk at the Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, 29th May, 2015 (talk entitled: Optimising Brain Perfusion and Function: Targeted intervention to improve brain health).

Invited talk for Liverpool John Moores University seminar series, 2nd March 2015 (talk entitled: Optimising Brain Perfusion and Function: Targeted intervention to improve brain health)

Speaker at Multimodal Human Brain Imaging Workshop: Techniques and Applications. University of Birmingham 8th September 2014 (talk entitled: Studying brain physiology [TCD & NIRS])

Invited speaker to research seminar series at the Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, 20th March 2014 (talk entitled: Optimising Brain Perfusion and Function: Targeted intervention to improve brain health)

Invited speaker for Centre for Cardiovascular & Respiratory Sciences Seminar series, Medical School, University of Birmingham (talk entitled: Optimising Brain Perfusion and Function: Targeted intervention to improve brain health).

Speaker for University of Birmingham, Medical School’s BetheChange symposium: Exercise and Medicine: The Science Behind the Headlines (talk entitled: Train the vessel, gain the brain: Exercise for brain health)

Invited speaker for BMRES Altitude Research conference, Birmingham, November 2013 (talk entitled: Sleep and brain blood flow).

Invited speaker at the 2013 ICEE (talk entitled: Environmental stress and the brain: An overview)

The Kidney in Health and Disease Research Theme research meeting, 5th December 2012 (talk entitled: 2012 Research Expedition to Everest basecamp: Extracting the urine at 5000 m)

School of Physical Education Research Day (talk entitled: Exercising your Brain: Physical Activity and Brain Blood Flow).

Research forum at the Wellington Medical School, 2009 (talk entitled: A Paradigm Shift for Cerebral Autoregulation).

University Service

Director of the University of Birmingham Environmental Chamber facility

Member and SportExR representative on the Birmingham University Imaging Centre management committee

Member of Centre for Human Brain Health working party

Member of Admissions team for School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences

Member of Athena Swan committee, School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences

Publications

Dr Lucas has published 76 original research articles as well as 122 conference abstracts. His work has been cited 1523 times and his H-index is 22.0 (Google Scholar).

Burley, C.V., Bailey, D.M., Marley, C.J., Lucas, S.J.E. (2016).Brain train to combat brain drain; focus on exercise strategies that optimise neuroprotection. Experimental Physiology, revision under review

Graham, M.J., Lucas, S.J.E., Francois, M.E., Stavrianeas, S., Parr, E., Thomas, K.N., Cotter, J.D. Low-volume intense exercise elicits post-exercise hypotension and subsequent hypervolemia, irrespective of which limbs are exercised. Frontiers in Physiology, 7:199. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00199. eCollection 2016

Burley, C.V., Lucas, R.A.I., Lucas, S.J.E. (2016). Method to the madness – interpreting measures of cerebrovascular health. Comments on Crosstalk 30: The middle cerebral artery diameter does/does not change during alterations in arterial blood gases and blood pressure. Journal of Physiology, in press

Prassard, P., Lucas, S.J.E. (2016). Phenylephrine-induced increases in arterial blood pressure and transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity. Comment on CrossTalk 30: The middle cerebral artery diameter does/does not change during alterations in arterial blood gases and blood pressure. Journal of Physiology, in press

Lucas, S.J.E., Helge, J.W., Schütz, U.H.W., Goldman, R.F., Cotter, J.D. (2016). Moving in Extreme Environments – Extreme loading: Carriage versus distance. Extreme Physiology & Medicine, doi: 10.1186/s13728-016-0047-z

Bierre, K.L., Lucas, S.J.E., Guiney, H., Cotter, J.D., Machado, L. (2016). Cognitive Difficulty Intensifies Age-related Changes in Anterior Frontal Hemodynamics: Novel Evidence from Near-infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, doi:10.1093/gerona/glw061

Thomas, K.N., van Rij, A., Lucas, S.J.E., Gray, A., Cotter, J.D. (2016). Substantive hemodynamic and thermal strain upon completing lower-limb hot-water immersion; comparisons with treadmill running. Temperature, doi: 10.1080/23328940.2016.1156215

Lucas, S.J.E., Burley, C.V., Cotter, J.D., Prassard, P., Marley, C., Bailey, D.M. (2016). We need to be open-minded about HIITing the brain with exercise. Comment on Crosstalk 26: High intensity interval training does/does not have a role in risk reduction or treatment of disease. Journal of Physiology, 593(24).

Clancy M, Belli A, Davies D, Lucas S.J.E., Zhangjie, S & Dehghani H. (2016). Improving the quantitative accuracy of cerebral oxygen saturation in monitoring the injured brain using atlas based Near Infrared Spectroscopy models. Journal of Biophotonics, doi: 10.1002/jbio.201500302

Paquette, M., Le Blanc, O. Lucas, S.J.E., Thibault, G., Bailey, D.M., Brassard, P. (2016). Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, doi: 10.1111/sms.12660

Perry, B.G., Bear, T.L.K. Lucas, S.J.E.,Mündel, T. (2016). Mild dehydration modifies the cerebrovascular response to the cold pressor test. Experimental Physiology, 101 (1), 135-142

Lucas, S.J.E., Breen, L., Phillips, A.C. (2015). Exercising our brains, muscles and cells to fight the ageing process. Science Progress, 98 (4), 413-415.

Mündel, T., Perry, B.G., Ainslie, P.N., Thomas, K.N., Sikken, E.L.G., Cotter, J.D.  Lucas, S.J.E. (2015).Postexercise orthostatic intolerance: Influence of exercise intensity. Experimental Physiology, 100(8):915-25. doi: 10.1113/EP085143.

Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D. Brassard, P. & Bailey, D.M. (2015). High intensity exercise and cerebrovascular health; curiosity, cause and consequence. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 35(6):902-11. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.49

Davies, D.J., Su, Z., Clancy, M., Lucas, S.J.E., Deghani, H., Logan, A., Belli, A. (2015). Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the monitoring of adult traumatic brain injury: a review. J Neurotrauma, 32(13):933-41. doi:10.1089/neu.2014.3748

Bradford, C.D, Lucas, S.J.E., Gerrard, D.F., & Cotter, J.D. (2015). Swimming in warm water is ineffective in heat acclimation and is non-ergogenic for swimmers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 25 Suppl 1:277-86. doi: 10.1111/sms.12351.

Hoiland, R.L., Foster, G.E., Donnelly, J., Stembridge, M., Willie, C.K., Smith, K.J., Lewis, N.C., Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D., Yeoman, D.J., Day, T.A., Tymko, M.M., Burgess, K.R., & Ainslie, P.N. (2015). Relationship between sea level chemoreceptor responsiveness and pulmonary artery pressure at high. Chest, 148(1):219-25. doi: 10.1378/chest.14-1992

Tremblay, J.C., Lovering, A.T., Ainslie, P.N., Stembridge, M., Burgess, K.R., Bakker, A., Donnelly, J., Lucas, S.J.E., Lewis, N.C.S., Dominelli, P.B., Henderson, W.R., Dominelli, G.S., Sheel, A.W. Foster, G.E. (2015). Hypoxia, not pulmonary vascular pressure induces blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses. J Physiol, 593(3):723-37.

Cameron, T.A., Lucas, S.J.E., Machado, L. (2015). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals link between chronic physical activity and anterior frontal oxygenation in healthy young women, Psychophysiology, 52 (5), 609-617. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12394

Button, C., Croft, J. L., Graham, M.J., Cotter, J.D. & Lucas, S.J.E. (2015). A multifactorial examination of human response to sudden cold-water immersion. Physiology and Behaviour, 138:254-9

Lizamore, C.A., Stoner, L, Lucas, S.J.E., Lucero, A., Hamlin, M.J. (2015). Does arterial health affect O2peak and muscle oxygenation in a sedentary cohort. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(2):272-9.

Thomas, K.N., Cotter, J.D., Lucas, S.J.E., Hill, B.G., van Rij, A.M. (2015). The reliability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the assessment of muscle perfusion in health and peripheral vascular disease. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 41(1):26-34

Guiney, H., Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D., Machado, L. (2015). Evidence superior brain blood flow regulation mediates physical activity-related cognitive benefits in healthy young adults. Neuropsychology, 29(1):1-9

Faull, O.K., Cotter, J.D., Lucas, S.J.E. (2014). Cerebrovascular responses during rowing performance: Do circadian rhythms explain a difference between morning and afternoon performance? Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 25(4):467-75. DOI: 10.1111/sms.12273

Smith, K.J., MacLeod, D., Willie, C.K., Lewis, N.C.S., Hoiland, R., Ikeda, K., Tymko, M., Donnelly, J., Day, T.A., MacLeod, N., Lucas, S.J.E., Ainslie, P.N. (2014). Influence of high altitude on cerebral blood flow and fuel utilization during exercise and recovery. J Physiol, 592(Pt 24):5507-27

Perry, B.G., Cotter, J.D., Mejuto, G., Mündel, T, Lucas, S.J.E. (2014). Cerebral haemodynamics during graded Valsalva manoeuvres. Frontiers in Physiology, 5:349. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00349

Perry, B.G., Lucas, S.J.E., Thomas, K.N., Cochrane, D.J., Mündel, T. (2014). The effect of hypercapnia on static cerebral autoregulation. Physiological Reports, 2(6). pii: e12059. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12059.

Manimmanakorn, N., Ross, J.J., Manimmanakorn, A., Lucas, S.J.E., Hamlin, M.J. (2014). Effect of whole body vibration therapy on performance recovery. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(3):388-95. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0225

Burgess, K.R., Lucas, S.J.E., Thomas, K.N., Shepherd, K., Dawson, A., Swart, M., Lucas, R.A.I., Donnelly, J., Peebles, K.C., Basnyat, R., & Ainslie, P.N. (2014). Influence of cerebral blood flow on central sleep apnoea at high altitude. Sleep, 37(10): 1679-1687.

Francois, M.E., Manning, P.J., Baldi, J.C. Lucas, S.J.E, Hawley, J.H. Cotter, J.D. (2014). Cardiometabolic benefits of ‘exercise snacking’ in pre-diabetes. Diabetologia, 57(7):1437-45.

Perry, B.G., Mündel, T, Cochrane, D.J., Cotter, J.D., Lucas, S.J.E. (2014). The cerebrovascular response to graded Valsalva maneuvers whilst standing. Physiological Reports, 2(2):e00233. doi: 10.1002/phy2.233.

Foster, G.E., Ainslie, P.N., Stembridge, M. Day, T.A., Bakker, A., Lucas, S.J.E., Lewis, N.C.S., Macleod, D., Lovering, A.T. (2014). Pulmonary hemodynamics and shunting: a comparison of sea-level inhabitants to high altitude Sherpas. Journal of Physiology, 592(6):1397-409

Smirl, J.D., Lucas, S.J.E., Lewis, N.C.S, duManior, G., Smith, K.J., Sherpa, N., Basnet, A.S., Ainslie, P.N. (2014). Cerebral pressure-flow relationship in lowlanders and natives at high altitude. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism,  34:248-57

Lewis, N.C.S., Bailey, D.M., DuManoir, G.R., Messinger, L., Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D.  Donnelly, J., McEneny, J. Young, I.S., Stembridge, M., Burgess, K.R., Basnet, A.S., Ainslie, P.N. (2014). Conduit artery structure and function in lowlanders and native highlanders: relationships with oxidative stress and role of sympathoexcitation. Journal of Physiology, 592(5):1009-24

Perry, B.G., Schalder, Z.J., Barnes, M.J., Cochrane, D.J., Lucas, S.J.E., Mündel, T. (2014). Hemodynamic response to upright resistance exercise: effect of load and repetition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(3):479-87

Ainslie, P.N., Lucas, S.J.E., Burgess, K.R. (2013). Breathing and sleep at high altitude: Invited review: Special issue “Sleep and Breathing” of Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 188(3):233-56

Lucas, S.J.E., Lewis, N.C.S., Sikken, E.L.G., Ainslie, P.N. (2013). Slow breathing as a means to improve orthostatic intolerance: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Applied Physiology,  115(2):202-11

Perry, B.G., Schalder, Z.J., Raman, A., Cochrane, D.J., Lucas, S.J.E., Mündel, T. (2013). Middle cerebral artery blood velocity in response to lower body positive pressure. Clinical Physiology Functional Imaging, 33(6):483-8.

Cotter, J.D., Lucas, S.J.E., Mündel, T. (2013). Environmental physiology research presented at ICEE2013. Extreme Physiology & Medicine, 2(1):22

Burgess, K.R., Lucas, S.J.E., Shepherd, K., Dawson, A., Swart, M., Thomas, K.N., Lucas, R.A.I., Peebles, K.C., Basnyat, R., & Ainslie, P.N. (2013). Worsening of central sleep apnea at high altitude – a role for cerebrovascular function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(8):1021-8.

Croft, J. L., Button, C., Hodge, K., Lucas, S.J.E., Barwood, M.J. & Cotter, J.D. (2013). Responses to sudden cold-water immersion in inexperienced swimmers following training. ASEM, 84 (8): 850-855.

Lewis, N.C.S., Ainslie, P.N., Atkinson, G., Jones, H., Lucas, S.J.E. (2013). Initial orthostatic hypotension: effect of alpha-1 adrenoreceptor activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 304(2):R147-54.

Murrell, C.J., Cotter, J.D., Thomas, K.N., Lucas, S.J.E., Williams M.J.A. & Ainslie, P.N. (2013). Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity at rest and during sub-maximal exercise: Effect of age and 12 weeks exercise training. Age, 35, 905-920.

Ainslie, P.N., Lucas, S.J.E., Fan, J-L., Thomas, K.N., Cotter, J.D., Tzeng, Y.C. & Burgess, K.R. (2012). Influence of sympathoexcitation at high altitude on cerebrovascular function and ventilatory control in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(7):1058-67.

Lewis, N.C.S., Ainslie, P.N., Atkinson G., Jones H., Grant E.J.M. & Lucas, S.J.E. (2012). The effect of time of day on orthostatic tolerance under conditions of sympathetic blockade. Chronobiology International, 29(7): 882-90.

Andrews, G.,Ainslie, P.N., Shepherd, K., Dawson, A., Swart, M., Lucas, S.J.E., & Burgess, K.R. (2012). The effect of partial acclimatisation to high altitude on loop gain and central sleep apnoea severity.Respirology, 17 (5): 835-40.

Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D., Murrell, C., Thomas, K.N., Franz, E.A., & Ainslie, P.N. (2012). Role of brain perfusion and oxygenation in exercise-induced improvements in cognition for young and old participants. Experimental Gerontology, 47 (8): 541-51.

Fan, J-L., Burgess, K.R., Thomas, K.N., Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D., Kayser, B., Peebles, K.C., Ainslie, P.N. (2012). Effects of Acetazolamide on cerebrovascular function and breathing stability at 5,050 m. Journal of Physiology,590 (5):1213-25.

Ross, E.Z.,Cotter, J.D., Wilson, L.C., Lucas, S.J.E., & Ainslie, P.N. (2012). Cerebrovascular and corticomotor function during progressive passive hyperthermia in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(5):748-58.

Donnelly, J., Cowan, D.C., Yeoman, D.J., Lucas, S.J.E., Herbison, G.P., Ainslie, P.N., Taylor, D.R. (2011). Exhaled nitric oxide and systolic pulmonary artery pressures during graded ascent to high altitude. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 177:213-217.

Donnelly, J., Lucas, S.J.E., Thomas, K.N., Galvin, S.D., & Ainslie, P.N. (2011) Profound cerebral ischemia and development of periodic breathing following experimentally-induced syncope. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 177, 66-70.

Jones, H. Lewis, N.C.S., Green, D.J., Ainslie, P.N., Lucas, S.J.E., Tzeng Y.C., Grant E.J.M., & Atkinson, G. (2011). Alpha-1 adrenoreceptor activity does not explain lower morning endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilation in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 300, R1437-R1442.

Lucas, S.J.E., Burgess, K.R., Thomas, K.N., Donnelly, J., Peebles, K.C., Lucas, R.A.I., Fan, J., Cotter, J.D., Basnyat, R., & Ainslie, P.N. (2011). Alterations in cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity during 14 days at 5050m. Journal of Physiology, 589(3): 741-753. [This article was an Editor’s Choice for the issue]

Willie, C.K., Colino, F.L., Bailey, D.M., Tzeng, Y.C., Binsted, G., Jones, L.W., Haykowsky, M.J., Bellapart, J., Ogoh, S., Smith, K.J., Smirl, J.D., Day, T.A., Lucas, S.J.E., Eller, L.K., & Ainslie, P.N. (2011). Utility of transcranial doppler ultrasound for the integrative assessment of cerebrovascular function. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 196(2): 221-37.

Fan, J.L., Burgess, K.R., Basnyat, R., Thomas, K.N., Peebles, K., Lucas, S.J.E., Lucas, R.A.I., Donnelly, J., Cotter, J.D., & Ainslie, P.N. (2011). Influence of indomethacin ingestion on ventilatory and cerebrovascular responsiveness to hypoxia. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(4): 601-10.

Geertsema L., Lucas S.J.E., Cotter J.D., Hock B., McKenzie J., & Fernyhough L. (2011). Soluble CD40 Ligand (CD154) but not soluble CD40 is lowered by ultra-endurance exercise in athletes. British Journal of Sport Medicine, 45(1): 42-45.

Lewis, N.C.S., Atkinson G., Lucas, S.J.E., Grant E.J.M., Jones H., Tzeng Y.C., Horsman, H., & Ainslie, P.N. (2011). Is there diurnal variation in initial and delayed orthostatic hypotension in standing and head-up tilt? Chronobiology International, 28: 135-145.

Tzeng, Y.C., Willie, C.K., Atkinson, G., Lucas, S.J.E., Wong, A., & Ainslie, P.N.(2010).Cerebrovascular regulation during transient hypotension and hypertension in humans. Hypertension, 56(2), 268-73.

Lucas, S.J.E., Tzeng, Y.C., & Ainslie, P.N. (2010). Response - Cerebrovascular Pressure-Flow Relationship; A Simple Concept but a Complex Phenomenon. Hypertension, 56(1):e3

Lewis, N.C.S., Atkinson G., Lucas, S.J.E., Grant E.J.M., Jones H., Tzeng Y.C., Horsman, H., Ainslie, P.N. (2010). Diurnal variation in time to pre-syncope and associated circulatory changes during a controlled orthostatic challenge. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 299(1):R55-R61.

Lucas, S.J.E., Tzeng, Y.C., Galvin, S.D., Thomas, K.N., Ogoh, S. & Ainslie, P.N. (2010). Influence of changes in blood pressure on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Hypertension, 55(3), 698-705.

Tzeng, Y.C., Lucas, S.J.E., Atkinson, G., Willie, C.K., & Ainslie, P.N.(2010) Fundamental relationships between arterial baroreflex sensitivity and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(5), 1162-1168.

Thomas, K.N., Burgess, K.R., Basnyat R., Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D., Fan, J. Peebles, K.C., Lucas, R.A.I., & Ainslie, P.N. (2010). Initial orthostatic hypotension at high altitude. High Altitude Medicine and Biology, 11(2): 163–167.

Fan, J.L., Burgess, K.R., Thomas, K.N., Peebles, K., Lucas, S.J.E., Lucas, R.A.I., Cotter, J.D., & Ainslie, P.N. (2010). Influence of indomethacin on ventilatory and cerebrovascular responsiveness to CO2 and breathing stability: the influence of PCO2 gradients. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 298(6): R1648-58.

Fan, J.L., Burgess, K.R., Basnyat, R., Thomas, K.N., Peebles, K., Lucas, S.J.E., Lucas, R.A.I., Donnelly, J., Cotter, J.D., & Ainslie, P.N. (2010) Influence of high altitude on cerebrovascular responsiveness to CO2. Journal of Physiology, 588 (3) 539-549.

Burgess, K.R., Fan, J.L., Peebles, K., Thomas, K.N., Lucas, S.J.E., Lucas, R.A.I., Dawson, A., Swart, M., Shepherd, K., & Ainslie, P.N. (2010). Exacerbation of obstructive sleep apnoea by oral Indomethacin.Chest, 137(3) 707-710.

Ogoh, S., Tzeng, Y.C., Lucas, S.J.E., Galvin, S.D., & Ainslie, P.N. (2010). Influence of baroreflex-mediated tachycardia on the regulation of dynamic cerebral perfusion during acute hypotension in humans.Journal of Physiology, 588 (2) 365-371.

Cowan, D.C., Hewitt, R.S., Cowan, J.O., Palmay, R., Williamson, A., Lucas, S.J.E., Murrell, C.J., Thomas, K.N. & D.R. Taylor (2010). Exercise-induced wheeze: FENO directed management. Respirology, 15, 683–690.

Tzeng, Y.C., Sin, P.Y.W., Lucas, S.J.E., & Ainslie, P.N.(2009). Respiratory modulation of cardio-vagal baroreflex sensitivity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107: 718–724.

Lucas, S.J.E., Anson, J.G., Palmer, C.D., & Cotter, J.D. (2009). The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(7):719-28.

Ainslie, P.N., Cotter, J.D., George, K.P., Lucas, S.J.E., Murrell, C., Shave, R., Thomas, K.N., Williams, M.J., & Atkinson, G. (2008). Elevation in cerebral blood flow velocity with aerobic fitness throughout healthy human ageing. Journal of Physiology, 586(16):4005-10.

Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D., Murrell, C., Wilson, L., Anson, J.G., Gaze, D., George, K.P., & Ainslie, P.N. (2008). Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance following very prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105, 213-225.

Lucas, S.J.E., Anglem, N., Roberts, W.S., Anson, J.G., Palmer, C.D., Walker, R.J., Cook, C.J., & Cotter, J.D. (2008). Intensity and physiological strain of competitive ultra-endurance exercise in humans. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(5), 477-89.

Anglem, N., Lucas, S.J.E., Rose, E.A., & Cotter, J.D. (2008). Mood, illness and injury responses and recovery with Adventure Racing. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 19(1), 30-8

Helge, J.W., Rehrer, N. J., Pilegaard, H., Manning, P., Lucas, S.J.E., Gerrard, D.F., & Cotter, J.D. (2007). Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise. Acta Physiologica, 191(1), 77-86.

Murrell, C., Wilson, L., Cotter, J.D., Lucas, S.J.E., Ogoh, S., George, K., & Ainslie, P.N. (2007). Alterations in autonomic function and cerebral hemodynamics to orthostatic challenge following a mountain marathon. Journal of Applied Physiology, 103, 88-96.