Integrative whole-organism biology encompasses a wide spectrum of disciplines, including molecular biology, cell biology, neurobiology, physiology, and ethology, to understand biological function at the whole-organism level. In general, the genotype is a significant determinant of physiology and behaviour. Whereas the genome and gene numbers are characteristic for a certain species and obviously a product of evolution, gene expression strongly depends on a variety of exogenous and endogenous factors. To understand the molecular and neural basis of complex natural behaviour, reductionistic and holistic approaches have to be combined to elucidate how environmental information is perceived, processed, and translated into behaviour. Biological clock function, learning and memory formation as well as spatial and temporal orientation and navigation represent essential mechanisms to enable animals to cope with the environment. Striking examples of physiological adaptations to the environment can be found in different animal groups and are often closely linked to the complexity of life history strategies, as exemplified in migrating birds or animals inhabiting high lattitudes or tropical regions. The module's encompassing theme is "the whole animal as an integrated system." This 20 credit module is based upon lectures, workshops, and independent learning components.