Command, control and communications (C3) are vital facets of warfare. Although the significance, principles and fundamentals of C3 have not altered over the centuries, the methods by which it is carried out have undergone profound, technologically-driven changes. This module examines the evolution of C3 from the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars to the conflicts of the 21st Century. While the main focus will be on the command of armies, aspects of maritime, air and joint warfare will also be considered. The development of C3 will be set into the context of the evolution of modern warfare, with social, cultural, economic, political and diplomatic as well as purely military factors taken into consideration. The approach will be broadly chronological, proceeding via a series of case studies of individual commanders, campaigns and armed forces. Considerable attention will be paid to the role of national military culture in approaches to command, with particular reference to the Prussian/German, Russian/Soviet, and Anglo-American models. The enduring debates on the impact of technology and the role of doctrine will also be considered, as will the mechanics of command and staff work. A major theme will be the search by commanders and politicians for the `Holy Grail’ of decisive victory, and why, as war became more `total’ in the 19th and 20th centuries, such success became more difficult to achieve. The main focus of this module will be the emergence of command at the operational level, but there will also be some reference to C3 in the higher realms of strategy, and also the tactical (battlefield) dimension.