The module is divided into four primary sections. Part One surveys the broad history of the environmental changes caused by and leading to the process of industrialization in Europe in the 19th century. Part Two considers the role of colonization and imperialism to non-European environments and the socio-economic consequences. Part Three focuses on the relationship between ideology and environment in the early 20th century, considering liberal capitalism, communism and fascism. Part Four then analyses the unprecedented changes in the relationship between humans and the natural world during the twentieth century, especially since 1950, including explosive population growth, energy use and pollution, as well as the rise of modern environmentalism.