Women played an increasingly important role in 19th-century musical life, not only as professional composers and performers, but also as amateur musicians, editors, and writers. We will discuss a variety of issues related to their manifold roles, including those of gender and the canon, “male” vs. “female” compositional styles and genres, and “public” vs. “private” music making. We will read and discuss a variety of primary and secondary readings on the topic, including excerpts from contemporary and recent biographies, which will demonstrate the changing representation and reception of female musicians. In addition, selective compositions by women (including Clara Schumann, Fanny Hensel, Alma Mahler, and numerous lesser-known figures) will be studied and compared with those of male contemporaries, which will raise questions related to gender- and class-specific musical education. After becoming familiar with these musical and textual sources, the students will learn to evaluate women artists and their output within the context of nineteenth-century culture.