Scaling of semiconductor devices is discussed with reference to Technology Roadmaps. Future and emerging devices such as Single electron tunnelling transistors, intramolecular nanoelectronic devices, and carbon-based devices are described in conjunction with techniques for fabricating them, including extreme UV and X-ray lithography. Future circuits and systems are introduced through the 'System on a chip' that integrates devices such as optical waveguides, modulators and detectors and molecular electronics. Carbon-based electronic technologies such as flat screen displays and organic computers are introduced. The module concludes with a look at the key technology drivers and markets.