Second and Third Year Modules
Perspectives on African studies
This is a student-led seminar course that takes on issues of immediate contemporary concern in Africa, focusing on the way they are debated in Africa itself and situating these debates in their global context. The emphasis will be on breaking news stories, and seminars will be based on material gathered by students from the media, internet, and recent publications. These findings will be analysed in the light of recent theoretical writing on Africa. Throughout the module, attention will be given to techniques of analysis and presentation, following on from work done in the first-year course Focus on African Studies. The second half of the module will be devoted to dissertation training in preparation for the final-year dissertation. Sessions will focus on research, writing, IT and presentations skills. All students will have the opportunity to discuss their research ideas with the module convenor, and, in order to take account of the multi-disciplinary nature of DASA, students will have the opportunity to attend smaller-group sessions targeted at those interested in different disciplinary approaches.
Aid, NGOs and development
This module traces the emergence and changing nature as well as (development) significance of NGOs with reference to Africa. It explores the challenges and opportunities associated with the role of these organisations in African development policy, planning, implementation and evaluation. It also introduces students to the world of NGO work through organised visits to selected organisations and/or invited seminar presentations by NGO workers.
Trajectories of emancipation
This module looks at the process of emancipation from slavery in twentieth-century West Africa. At the beginning of the twentieth century European powers legally abolished slavery in their West African colonies. However, the colonial administration refrained from enforcing anti-slavery provisions for fear that former slaves would be difficult to control and recruit (as soldiers and forced labour). Research on the ‘slow death of slavery’ suggests that a conservative alliance between former masters and colonial administrators generated new forms of exploitation for slave descendants. Anthropologists and historians who focused on these issues have shown that emancipation occurred mainly as a result of the agency of ex-slaves, who developed different strategies of resistance and migrated to areas where they could control their own labour. This module focuses on the agency and experience of slaves and slave descendents. Spanning across a century, it follows trajectories of emancipation in specific West African regions, including Nigeria, Senegambia, Mali, Niger, Mauritania, and Benin. The module also considers work on human rights, citizenship, and the political mobilisation of slave descendents today.
African religion and ritual
This module compares different anthropological approaches to African traditional religion and explores a number of key case studies of divination, witchcraft and rites of passage. Religion is considered both as a complex of ideas and as a form of social action. It can be a medium of political resistance, the focus of artistic activity, and a site in which ideas about the self, the person, and the past and future are crystallised. African thought systems are further explored through a study of oral literary genres such as incantations, praise poetry and divination verses. Finally we look at modern popular representations of ‘traditional religion’, and the survival and transformation of African religious ideas in the African Diaspora.
African popular culture
The module looks at West African genres ranging from "traditional" oral performance arts to "modern" innovations of the colonial period such as concert party, travelling theatre, popular fiction and popular music, in the context of 20thcentury cultural and political change. Topics covered in the second semester include theatre for development, protest genres and township culture in Eastern and Southern Africa, in the context of colonisation, apartheid and the liberation struggle Texts and video recordings are studied in order to gain a sense of the aesthetics of these forms and the way their messages are constructed.
Social life of the economy
What is the economy? In what sense can we distinguish it from other aspects of social life? How do we make sense of economic changes, and their effects on people around the world? This module asks fundamental questions about how humans produce, exchange, distribute and consume resources. After questioning what the economy is in the first place, we will explore topics such as money, commodities and gifts, seeking to explain what these things do in society. We will examine the different meanings of work in different places, and see how understandings of time lie at the heart of economic life. The broad, comparative perspective of this module enables students to rethink capitalism itself, asking questions such as: What is the market? How can we best understand globalisation? What is the everyday, social life of global finance.
Students focus on an area of specific interest. If fieldwork is involved, they may plan and carry out a project, researching it during a field trip, or work independently but under the broad direction of a departmentally appointed supervisor on an (approved) topic of interest to them. The development of appropriate research skills is encouraged and students are expected to present their work either in the form of extended essay or as a report, approximately 5000 words in length.
Gender and development in Africa
This module begins by exploring key perspectives on gender in different settings. This ranges from feminism in cross-cultural perspective, to differences between the meanings of male and female work, to the importance of understanding different forms of masculinity. The module then applies these tools to key questions in development. We turn to the effects of the market and microfinance on men and women, and we examine health, violence and migration from the point of view of gender.
Rural livelihoods and development interventions in West Africa
In the first semester, this module examines changing rural geographies of household, village and regional livelihood systems. It places these changes in the context of globalisation and modernity, covering both the colonial and post-independence periods. In the second semester, we assess the 'development' interventions that aimed to transform the rural sector in specific parts of West Africa, through the agency of state and non-state actors.
Ghana: state and society
Students will engage with some of the most important questions in the field of African History, and find out how these questions might be answered in relation to a specific country, Ghana. Students will establish a chronological framework through the sessions that deal with the reasons for and responses to colonisation, the changing nature of the colonial state, and the emergence and success of anti-colonial nationalist movements. However, whilst Independence in 1957 is often seen as a dramatic break in Ghana’s modern history, this module will also identify elements of continuity into the second half of the twentieth century. Commercial agriculture, labour migration, urbanisation, increased demand for formal education, and changing marital and family relationships were seen as ‘problems’ by both colonial and post-colonial governments. Through a series of individual life histories, students will learn how ‘real’ men and women identified the economic and social opportunities that were open to them, and responded in ways that reflected their changing understandings of what it meant to lead a successful life.
Theory and ethnography
Ethnography and Theory covers essential elements of social theory for Anthropology, and
anthropological theory for the Social Sciences and Humanities. It provides training in theories and theorists who have influenced anthropological thought and ethnographic research (e.g. Marx, Durkheim, Weber, etc.); and in the historical development of anthropological schools of thought in Britain, the US, and France, from the nineteenth century to the present day. It constitutes
a fundamental component of degree programmes with an anthropological focus
- Value: 20 credits
- Assessment: 2 x 2000 word essays
Theory, ethnography and research
Ethnography, Theory, and Research covers essential elements of social theory for Anthropology, and anthropological theory for the Social Sciences and Humanities. It provides training in theories and theorists who have influenced anthropological thought and ethnographic research (e.g. Marx, Durkheim, Weber, etc.); and in the historical development of anthropological schools of thought in Britain, the US, and France, from the nineteenth century to the present day. It constitutes a fundamental component of degree programmes with an anthropological focus. The module includes an assessed practical research project in which students put into practice what they have learned: students behave like anthropologists, making systematic observations of the social behaviour that takes place around them, and they analyse this behaviour using theoretical frameworks studied in the first half of the module. During this project work, students will receive training and support through additional contact hours.
- Value: 40 credits, compulsory for all second-year students taking JH Anthropology programmes
South Africa since apartheid: politics and culture
This module considers developments in South Africa since the transition from apartheid in 1994. Topics include the institutional arrangements of the new state; the leadership styles of Mandela, Mbeki and Zuma, as well as the recent leadership struggles within the governing African National Congress and the direction of current politics more broadly; the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and contemporary ‘race relations’; South Africa’s economic prospects; the country’s foreign policy, including its geopolitical role in Africa; immigration and xenophobia; the politics of AIDS and health services provision; land reform and restitution; struggles for gender equality and gay and lesbian rights; new patterns of consumption; witchcraft and organised religion; and trends in media, sport and the arts.
South Africa in the 20th century
This module studies South Africa from the late 19th century to the end of political apartheid in 1994. The emphasis falls equally on the consolidation of settler domination and on the varieties of African initiative and resistance that shaped and challenged white rule and exploitation. Topics include the change from a predominantly rural and agricultural to an urban and industrial society; the causes and consequences of the Anglo-Boer War and their relationship to the gold mining industry; the segregationist institutions and policies of the settler dominion from 1910-1945; the meaning and making of apartheid after 1948; black nationalism at home and in exile; and the insurrections, states of emergency and negotiations that produced the new South Africa.
South Africa in the 19th century
This module focuses on the interactions of Africans and Europeans in pre-industrial South Africa. We consider (1) the forces that promoted both settler expansion and the consolidation of powerful African states, for example the Zulu Kingdom; and (2) the conflicts that ensued. Topics include the role of missionaries; the implications of land alienation and labour mobilisation; the cultural and social resources of African resistance; and assimilation and segregation as competing European approaches to incorporating Africans within colonial politics. The module concludes with the changes wrought by the discovery of diamonds and gold in the 1870s and 1880s.
The African canon
This module examines the contexts - literary, cultural and political - of African literature in English (and in translation) by considering the work of several of the continent’s major contemporary writers who might be said to represent `the canon’ of African literature as it is taught and studied in universities around the world. By the end of the module the student should be able to analyse and explain key texts and literary processes relevant to African literature; discuss these texts and their literary and cultural implications (including analysis of primary evidence where appropriate); and identify the main scholarly views on African Literature.
African new writing
This module explores the variety of approaches evolved by the continent’s writers in the past two decades to the business of making literature in the circumstances of contemporary Africa. We will look, for example, at writers’ responses to late and post-apartheid South Africa, examine the so called `magical realist’ strategies of some West African authors and consider the debates around the emergence of a distinctive `African women’s literature’. The problems of constructing adequate and appropriate critical tools for the discussion of such work will be considered.
Value: 20 credits
This module focuses on Caribbean poetry, asking whether traditional ideas of literary crafting are relevant to contemporary word culture from the Caribbean. We will look at the relationship between the themes and forms that writing has developed, and the kinds of societies that Caribbean and Black British writers have emerged from and engaged with during the post-colonial period. We will discuss issues of language - the debate between 'nation language' and 'standard English'; of style - the 'Caribbean sonnet' or the dub rant; of production - Faber & Faber or Island Records, and, underlying all of these, of audience - ways in which it/they/we are defined and respond to such writings. Poets to be discussed include Derek Walcott, Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Martin Carter, Claude McKay, Louise Bennett, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Mikey Smith, Jean Binta Breeze, Lorna Goodison and Grace Nichols.
Value: 20 credits
Atlantic slavery: West Africa and the Caribbean
This modules provides an overview of the structure and volume of the transatlantic slave trade and the numbers of people it involved; describes the practices of slave-raiding, slave-trading and slave-owning in selected pre-colonial West African states; explains why the slave trade was abolished; analyzes slaves’ experience of the `middle passage’; explains the economics of plantation slavery, and explores the social and cultural life of slaves on selected Caribbean islands, including an analysis of slave rebellions.
Value: 20 credits
In this module, students will identify a topic that is of interest of them and which is appropriate to their chosen degree subject (e.g. an anthropological topic for those taking Joint Honours Anthropology programmes or Single Honours Archaeology and Anthropology, and a development studies topic for students taking Single Honours African Studies with Development). The Dissertation should be a culmination of the enquiry-based learning that has been developed in the course of their degree programme, and as such students are expected learner independence, whilst being supported by members of academic staff and by their peers. With the benefit of one-to-one meetings with an academic supervisor, and participation in student-led workshops, students will plan and execute work that culminates in a Dissertation of 10,000 words. The successful completion of a Dissertation will allow students to demonstrate the following skills which are transferable to employment or further study:
- Project planning
- Time management
- Information selection, retrieval and storage (using ICT where appropriate)
- Responding positively to feedback
- Written communication
- Editing and presenting a substantial piece of work (using ICT where appropriate).