This module will examine the control of cardiac output, blood pressure and blood flow, and the central / peripheral cardiovascular interactions during exercise that limit performance. One focus will be on afferent signals generated within exercising muscles that drive and modulate cardiovascular reflexes. Another will investigate how central command associated with voluntary exercise can initiate and adjust blood pressure and heart rate responses. The factors that regulate local blood flow, in particular the vascular endothelium, will be studied in the context of distribution of cardiac output to active and inactive tissues during exercise. All these systems and their role in cardiovascular health will be emphasised by studying alterations to training and in diseases such as heart failure, hypertension and diabetes. Interactions between central cardiovascular control mechanisms, peripheral vascular control and the respiratory system during exercise will be discussed in a systems physiology approach.