This module considers the significance of literacy and literate culture in Europe between c1100 and 1550. It examines developments both in England and on the continent, with some bias towards the former for ease of access to appropriate materials. It considers mainly the question of literacy and the production of texts in varied contexts. It examines the significance of the use of different languages, and means of assuring the authority of a text. The scale and significance of documentary production, both administrative and literary, are also considered, together with the significance of the production and accumulation of literary materials and records for medieval culture.