This module draws on the recent growth of scholarship on women as patrons and artists in the late medieval and early modern period. It will first focus on the construction of the female sex in discourses of the time and explore modern methodologies for studying women and the production of art, and the possibilities for bringing them into the canon. It will then focus on the different social, political and religious roles played by women in this period, including motherhood, ruler, or confirmed religious, and how this shaped their patronage and artistic practice, or how these roles influenced the works they were offered by men. Secular as well as devotional works will be considered through a series of case studies. These will include portraiture, illuminated manuscripts, and tomb sculpture commissioned by noble women such as Isabeau of Bavaria, Margaret of Austria and Isabella d’Este, as well as more ‘popular’ objects from material culture that were destined specifically for female audiences.