This module provides an introduction to thermodynamic considerations of reacting chemical systems. The laws of thermodynamics are presented, and the concept of chemical equilibrium discussed. The second part of the module is concerned with the kinetics of a reacting system i.e. the rate at which a reacting system proceeds and reaches equilibrium (as determined by thermodynamics). The module also contains a third component, relating to optical spectroscopy. An introduction to light spectroscopy is provided (electromagnetic spectrum; nature of light; energy relationships; energy levels and quantum states; transitions), before discussing the principles and concepts of physical spectroscopy in three principal areas. These areas, in increasing energy, are: Rotational Spectroscopy; Vibrational Spectroscopy; and Electronic Spectroscopy. The laboratory component of the module develops practical skills associated with physical chemistry, and in some areas aims to reinforce the lecture material.