Thermodynamics provides an essential quantitative framework for understanding both equilibrium and change in the physical world. The objective of this module is to extend the ideas in year 1 to non-ideal situations: situations where the interactions between atoms, molecules or ions need to be taken into account. The module will provide a concise explanation of how these interactions affect the properties of materials and of how systems reach equilibrium. It will then illustrate the importance of some of these ideas in electrochemistry. Electrochemistry is of great technological importance in, for example, power generation, understanding and preventing corrosion, metal finishing, analytical chemistry and synthetic chemistry.