Nuclear Instrumentation, Radiation Dosimetry and Protection
Module Title - Nuclear Instrumentation, Radiation Dosimetry and Protection
Number of credits – 20
Neutron & Radiation Physics
Significance of neutrons: The Curve of Binding Energy and its Relation to Fission and Fusion, Number Densities, Cross sections, and Mean Free Paths; Theory of fission: Resonances, The Fission Barrier, The Semi- Empirical Mass Formula, Energy release from Fission; Introductory Reactor physics and kinetics: Simple Ideas of Reactor Criticality, The Four Factor Formula, Delayed Neutrons. 1-Group Diffusion and the Graphite Stack (An experiment in the Laboratory).
Semester 1, contact hours -5.
Nature of information provided by detectors; pulse shapes and times; preamplifiers (especially charge-sensitive types). Pulse-shaping networks; integration and differentiation time-constants; pole-zero cancellation; delay-line clipping. Relevance to pulse shape and signal-tonoise ratio. Timing from pulses. Discriminators; coincidence units; delayamplifiers; linear gates; time-to -amplitude converters; types of analogueto- digital converters (ADC's). Functions, properties and shortcomings of modules. Counting and data-acquisition systems.
Semester 1, contact hours - 6.
Principles and operating characteristics of a variety of nuclear particle detectors (gas-filled, liquid and solid types), including discussions of the following topics:
Specific energy-loss for electrons and for light and heavy ions; range-energy relationships. Statistical variations and Fano factor.
Pulse formation in gaseous proportional counters; recombination effects: application to charged-particle and neutron detection; position-sensitive detectors and microdosimetry. Pulse-shape discrimination.
Scintillation mechanism in organic and inorganic detectors: light -output characteristics and particle identification. Photomultiplier characteristics, time- and energy-resolution limitations. Application to neutron and photon detection.
Principles of semiconductor detectors; energy response; energy resolution and its statistical aspects; timing characteristics and factors that influence them. Uses and operational characteristics of surface-barrier semiconductor detectors; lithium-drifted and hyperpure germanium detectors; positionsensitive detectors.
Neutron spectrometry using semiconductor detectors and scintillation counters. Nuclear emulsions, image plates, and chargecoupled devices.
Semester 1, contact hours - 16.
Dosimetric quantities and units; field, interaction, conversion and energy deposition. Deposition processes; interrelationship between quantities. Simple methods for estimation of dose rates around radioactive sources; point gamma and beta. Fano and Bragg-Gray theorems; application of cavity theory to dosimetry of X and gamma-rays, electrons and beta particles. Practical considerations in the design and usage of ionisation chambers. Neutron dosimetry. Significance of LET; determination of LET spectra, mixed-field dosimetry. Fundamentals of microdosimetry. Review of dosimetry techniques; calorimetric, chemical, solid state.
Semester 1, contact hours - 6.
y-ray and neutron shielding calculations; y -ray attenuation and build-up factors. Treatment of complex geometries; distributed and self-shielded sources. Methods for complex spectra, including X-ray generators and irradiated nuclear fuel.
Semester 1, contact hours - 5.
Classification of persons. Practical aspects of radiological monitoring systems. Internal dose assessment procedures - compartment models, physical and computational phantoms ICRP Publication 103 and the corresponding PHE recommendations. UK legislation including the ionizing Radiation Regulations, 1999. The roles of the various regulatory authorities. Public perception of risk.
Semester 1, contact hours - 12.