Radiation Transport, Thermal Hydraulics and Reactor Engineering

Module Title - Radiation Transport, Thermal Hydraulics and Reactor Engineering
Number of credits – 20

Module description

Nuclear Fusion

Principles of nuclear fusion. Confinement techniques, inertial and magnetic confinement. Plasma dynamics. Tokamaks, Stellerators. Materials damage in fusion. Fusion reactor design, components and systems. Laboratory Courses: In addition to these lectures, there are two experimental laboratory courses, a 'theoretical laboratory' in numerical analysis and computing, and a group exercise to emphasise teamwork. 
Semester 2/3, contact hours - 10

Radiation and Charged Particle Transport

Areas of Application of Transport Theory: particularly reactors, medicine and applications of radiation. The Boltzmann Equation. Flux and Current: Angular and scalar quantities. Double differential scatting cross sections (scattering kernels) and the kinematics of neutron scatter. Outline of Methods of solution of the Boltzmann Equation: Monte Carlo, SN, PN, Energy multigroup form of the Boltzmann Equation, Dealing with time variation. Angular variation and integrating the Boltzmann Equation over solid angle. Diffusion Theory. Non-linear Transport. Data files: in particular ENDF/B, JEF. Specific issues for Photon transport and Electron transport. Kerma.
Semester 1, contact hours 12.

Reactor Kinetics

Fission product generation and origins of delayed neutrons. Delayed neutron properties. Point-kinetics, reactivity, solution of the in-hour equation. Temperature dependent reactivity feedback effects in power reactor systems. Reactor start-up and shut-down. Xenon build-up and its importance in reactor operation. Other reactor poisons, including burnable poisons.
Semester 1, contact hours 12.

Reactor Physics

The Neutron Transport Equation with Fission Source. A Review of Methods of Solution: Monte Carlo, Angular Variation Simplification, SN and PN, Diffusion Theory. Energy Variation Simplification, Multigroup Methods. Space and Time Simplification, relation to Point-Kinetics. Diffusion Theory. Boundary Conditions. One Group Diffusion Theory. Eigen Functions, Criticality and Buckling. Reflected Reactors. Criticality Calculations, Inner/outer loop iteration methods, Extrapolation methods. Perturbation Theory. Dynamic Methods of Reactivity Measurement. Comments on Spatial Effects in Kinetics. Multigroup Diffusion. Multigroup Perturbation Theory. Fast spectrum Effects: Resonance Integrals, Age Theory. Thermal Spectrum Effects. Heterogeneous Cores: Cell Calculations, Dancoff Factors. Actual Codes: WIMS, Argosy, Panther.
Semester 2, contact hours 22.

Statistics

Summary of statistics concepts: frequency distributions and statistical measures. Types of distributions which are of interest in physics. Sampling and confidence limits. Tests of hypothesis, Student's t-test and chi-sq test. Curve fitting, least squares and non-linear least squares methods. Levenberg - Marquardt routines. Recommended reporting of the errors in experimental data. Practical exercises.
Semester 1, contact hours 12.

Thermal Hydraulics & Reactor Engineering

Heat transfer by conduction, application to fuel elements. Heat transfer by forced convection, empirical correlations, dimensional analysis. Application to gas cooled reactors, maximum can temperature in channel, improvement by finning and by roughening can surface. Flow of compressible fluid with friction losses, pressure drop and pumping power. Thermohydraulic design of core, hotspot factors, gagging, significance of pumping power in gas cooled reactors, criteria for fuel element performance, choice of coolant. Boiling heat transfer, burnout, critical heat flux ratio. Two-phase flow, pressure drop correlations. Liquid metal heat transfer, application to sodium-cooled fast reactors. Pressure vessels, analysis of thick walled steel vessels, prestressed concrete vessels. Boilers, use of temperature enthalpy diagram. Steam cycles, thermodynamic limitations on efficiency, Mollier diagram, wetness problems, superheat, reheat and feed heating. Safety studies by case history e.g. analysis of can temperature rise and duration of typical depressurisation accident.
Semester 2, contact hours 19.