cloudThe ICECAP-A (ICEpop CAPability measure for Adults) is a measure of capability for the general adult (18+) population for use in economic evaluation. Unlike most profile measures used in economic evaluations, the ICECAP-A focuses on wellbeing defined in a broader sense, rather than health. The measure covers attributes of wellbeing that were found to be important to adults in the UK.

ICECAP-A comprises five attributes (the lay terms are in brackets):

  • Attachment (an ability to have love, friendship and support)
  • Stability (an ability to feel settled and secure)
  • Achievement (an ability to achieve and progress in life)
  • Enjoyment (an ability to experience enjoyment and pleasure)
  • Autonomy (an ability to be independent)

The ICECAP-A descriptive system was developed using qualitative methods. A set of UK index values for ICECAP-A have been estimated using a best-worst scaling. Qualitative and quantitative studies of the validity of the ICECAP-A have been conducted with general population and patient samples.

ICECAP-A is free to use, but the use of the measure must be registered with us first. More details on the registration, index values, validity and applications of the ICECAP-A can be found on this website.

ICECAP-A Registration...

Before using ICECAP-A in your study please register with us first. You do not have to pay to use the measure, but please complete the registration form docx 143Kb.

Please email a copy of the completed form to Katie Breheny.  Once registered, you will be sent a version of the instrument in MS Word.

ICECAP-A Questionnaire...

 Download the ICECAP-A questionnaire.

Please remember to register with us before you start, by using the registration form docx 143Kb. A Word version of the questionnaire will be available upon registration.

If you have any questions about using ICECAP-A in your study please contact Joanna Coast or Philip Kinghorn

Click here for an example of a proxy version of the ICECAP-A, developed by Coast et al. as part of the ERC funded Evaluation of End of Life Care project.

Please click here to download guidance on the scoring of the ICECAP-A instrument and for the STATA code

ICECAP-A translations...

A Welsh translation of the ICECAP-A has been developed by Gwerfyl Roberts and colleagues in the School of Healthcare Sciences at Bangor University.

A Dutch translation of ICECAP-O has been developed by Manuela Joore from Maastricht University Medical Center, Netherlands. 

The ICECAP-A has been translated into Chinese by Judy Xu and colleagues from the Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, and the Guizhou Medical University, China. 

A German translation of the ICECAP-A has been developed by the Multi-Instrument Comparison (MIC) team and validated by Myles-Jay Linton, Paul Mitchell, Hareth Al-Janabi, Micheal Schlander, Jeff Richardson, Angelo Iezzi & Joanna Coast. 

A Danish translation of ICECAP-A has been developed by Annette Willemoes Holst-Kristensen from the Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements at Aalborg University.

A Persian translation of the ICECAP-A has been developed by Rahil Sadat Shahtaheri and colleagues (Shekoufe nikfar, Ali Akbari Sari, Mirsaeed Yekaninejad) from the Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration at the School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

An Italian translation of the ICECAP-A has been developed by Sebastian Himmler and colleagues from Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

A French translation of ICECAP-A has been developed by Valérie CLEMENT (Univ. Montpellier, France), Raphael TROUILLET (Univ. Paul Valery, Montpellier, France), Thierry BLAYAC (Univ. Montpellier, France) and Grégory NINOT (Univ. Montpellier, France), with project funding from Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP).

A French translation has been developed by Marion Coste and Patrizia Carrieri from the SESSTIM (INSERM, IRD Aix-Marseille University), France.

A Hungarian translation of ICECAP-A is available upon request from Philip Kinghorn.  The Hungarian translation of ICECAP-A was developed and validated by Márta Péntek* and colleagues from Corvinus University of Budapest (*now at Óbuda University (Budapest)). This research was supported by the Higher Education Institutional Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities in the framework of the 'Financial and Retail Services' research project (20764-3/2018/FEKUTSTRAT) at Corvinus University of Budapest.

A Czech translation has been developed by Kateřina Kepáková (FNUSA-ICRC, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic) and Katharina Roser (University of Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland) and colleagues. Translation was undertaken as part of the European Union (EU) under Horizon 2020 funded PanCareFollowUp project. The translation is available on request from Philip Kinghorn

A Spanish version of the ICECAP-A has been developed by Pilar Barnestein-Fonseca, Maria Luisa Martín-Rosello, Inmaculada Ruiz-Torreras, and Eva Víbora-Martín from CUDECA Institute for Training and Research in Palliative Care, CUDECA Foundation, Málaga, Spain.  The translation was undertaken as part of the iLIVE project study/project.  Work was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 program under grant agreement ID: 825731.  The Spanish translation is available upon request from Philip Kinghorn.

A Swedish translation of ICECAP-A has been developed by Cecilia Follin (Department of Oncology, Skane University hospital, Lund, Sweden) and Katharina Roser (University of Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland) and colleagues. Translation was undertaken as part of the European Union (EU) under Horizon 2020 funded PanCareFollowUp project. The translation is available on request from Philip Kinghorn.

A Japanese translation of ICECAP-A has been developed by Hideyuki Kobayashi from Research Center for Normative Economics, IER, Hitotsubashi University, as part of “the Implementation of Welfare Transportation System Based on the Capability Approach and Construction of Research Analysis Program.”  The work was funded by JSPS (Japanese Society for Promotion of Science) Basic Research A 19H00595. To obtain a version of the translation, please contact Philip Kinghorn.

Once again, please remember to register use with us before using any versions of the questionnaire by completing the registration form docx 143Kb and emailing to Katie Breheny



The development of the ICECAP-A measure is detailed in:

Al-Janabi H, Flynn T, Coast J. (2012) Development of a self-report measure of capability wellbeing for adults: the ICECAP-A. Quality of Life Research 21: 167-176 (DOI: 10.1007/s11136-011-9927-2).

UK index values for the ICECAP-A are presented in:

Flynn TN, Huynh E, Peters TJ, Al-Janabi H, Moody A, Clemens S, Coast J. Scoring the ICECAP-A capability instrument. Estimation of a UK general population tariff. Health Economics. Online first: doi: 10.1002/hec.3014

Evidence about reliability, validity and feasibility of use can be found in:

Baji P, Farkas M, Dobos A, Zrubka Z, Gulácsi, L, Brodszky V, Rencz F & Péntek M. 2020 “Capability of well-being: validation of the Hungarian version of the ICECAP-A and ICECAP-O questionnaires and population normative data”.  Quality of Life Research.

Al-Janabi H, Peters TJ, Brazier J, Bryan S, Flynn TN, Clemens S, Moody A, Coast J. (2013) An investigation of the construct validity of the ICECAP-A capability measure. Quality of Life Research. 22: 1831-1840 (doi: 10.1007/s11136-012-0293-5)

Al-Janabi H, Keeley T, Mitchell P, Coast J. (2013) Can capabilities be self-reported? A think-aloud study. Social Science and Medicine. 87: 116-122

Keeley T, Al-Janabi H, Lorgelly P & Coast J. (2013) A Qualitative Assessment of the Content Validity of the ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-5L and Their Appropriateness for Use in Health Research. PLoS ONE 8(12)

Mitchell P, Al-Janabi H, Richardson J, Lezzi A, Coast J.  (2015) “The Relative Impacts of Disease on Health Status and Capability Wellbeing: A Multi-Country Study” PLOSOne, 1371/journal.pone.0143590

Goranitis, I., Coast, J., Al-Janabi, H., Latthe, P., & Roberts, T. E. (2016). The validity and responsiveness of the ICECAP-A capability-well-being measure in women with irritative lower urinary tract symptomsQuality of Life Research, 25(8), 2063–2075.

Keeley, T., Al-Janabi, H., Nicholls, E., Foster, N., Jowett, S., & Coast, J. (2015). A longitudinal assessment of the responsiveness of the ICECAP-A in a randomised controlled trial of a knee pain interventionQuality of Life Research, 24(10), 2319–2331.

Keeley, T., Coast, J., Nicholls, E., Foster, N. E., Jowett, S., & Al-Janabi, H. (2016).An analysis of the complementarity of ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-3 L in an adult population of patients with knee painHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14(1), 1–5. 

Non-UK Contexts:

Linton MJ, Mitchell PM, Al-Janabi H, Schlander M, Richardson J, Lezzi A, Ubels J, Coast J. (2018) ‘Comparing the German Translation of the ICECAP-A Capability Wellbeing Measure to the Original English Version: Psychometric Properties across Healthy Samples and Seven Health Condition Groups’.  Applied Research in Quality of Life