Professor Colin Gough research summary

Microwave measurements

Microwave measurements of surface impedance probe properties as a function of temperature and frequency. This provides a powerful tool to investigate electron dynamics of normal and superconducting states, where the properties are strongly dependent on the superconducting order parameter. Our work has included studies of many interesting materials such as cuprates, heavy fermion compounds, and ruthenates.

We developed a novel hollow dielectric resonator technique for extracting important information from microwave measurements. By measuring the change in resonant frequency of the cavity, as the temperature of the sample is changed, we can measure the magnetic penetration depth in the sample. This provides information about the number of superconducting electrons. The losses within the cavity provide information about the excitations in a superconductor. This can be related to the theoretical predictions of microscopic models. 

Musical interests

ARCM (violin - performing); also play the baroque violin, viola and piano (the latter for my own enjoyment only).

Leader of National Youth Orchestra 1953-5 and British Music Students Orchestra at Brussels World Exposition 1958. 

Leader of Haywood String Quartet (resident quartet at University of Birmingham - 1962-1991) and Barber Opera Orchestra. 

Playing and occasionally leading Birmingham and West Midlands professional chamber groups and orchestras (Orchestra da Camera, Ex Cathedra, Bach Society Orchestra, the Midland Chamber Ensemble, etc). Music Camp" Wagner and Strauss week-ends, Wednesday Band rehearsal orchestra and lots of chamber music at home for fun.

External examiner for 6 years for the Tonmeister music technology course at the University of Surrey and for 3-year for the BSc in Music at City University.

Musical acoustics interests in linear and non-linear string vibrations and the acoustics of musical instruments were initially developed through undergraduate projects at Birmingham. 


Birmingham’s demonstration of flux quantisation in HTS in units of h/2e

Flux quantisation in a high-Tc superconductor. C.E.Gough et al. Nature 326, 855 (1987) Reprinted in Thouless. Topological States of Matter.

Demonstration of first HTS SQUID

Radio-frequency SQUIDoperation using a ceramic High-temperature superconductor, M.S. Colclough, C.E. Gough et al. Nature 328, 47-48 (1987) .

First microwave application of HTS a short dipole antenna and matching transmission line (IEE Letter Prize)

High-Tc Superconducting short antenna. K. Khamas, C.E. Gough et al, Electronic Letters 24, 460-461(1988). 

Demonstration of phase coherence between a conventional and high temperature superconductor 

Demonstration of phase coherence of the superconducting wavefunction between conventional and High-Tc superconductors. M.N.Keene, T.J.Jackson and C.E.Gough,Nature 340, 210-211 (1989). 

Experimental and theoretical investigation of flux creep in ceramic superconductors

Flux creep in High-Tc superconductors, C. Mee, A.I.M.Rae, W.F.Vinen and C.E Gough (1991). Phys.Rev.B 43, 2946-2955 (1991). 

Experimental and theoretical investigation of microwave properties of HTS single crystals and thin films

Microwave response of anisotropic high-temperature superconductor crystals, C.E.Gough and N.J. Exon, Phys.Rev B50, 488-495 (1994). 

Field, temperature and frequency dependence of the surface impedance of YBCO thin films

Field, temperature and frequency dependence of the surface impedance of YBCO thin films. J.R.Powell et al and C.E. Gough, Phys.Rev.B57, 5474-5484 (1998). 

Temperature and field dependence of non-linear c-axis transport in 2212 BSCCO crystals 

  • Field and temperature dependence of c-axis critical current in 2212-BSCCO single crystals at the melting and 2-dimensional decomposition field. S. Luo , G. Yuang and C.E. Gough (1995) Phys.Rev.B51, 6655-6662 (1995).
  • Bi2Sr2CaCu2O 8+x intrinsic Josephson junctions in a magnetic field. A. Yurgens, D. Winkler. T. Claeson G.Yang, I.F.G. Parker, C.E. Gough. Phys Rev B59, 7196-7204 (1999).
  • Observation of normal and superconducting state energy gap features from intrinisc c-axis interlayer tunnelling in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O 8+x crystals. F.G. Parker, M. Endres, P. Thomas, G. Yang, A. Jurgens and C.E. Gough, Proc. Conf. on superlattices II: Native and Artifical, SPIE Proceedings Vol 3480 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA.1998). 

Early measurements and theory on flux flow in type-2 superconductors

The motion of Abrikosov vortices in type-II superconductors. P.H. Borcherds, C.E. Gough, W.F. Vinen and A.C. Warren, Phil. Mag. 349-354 (1964). 

Decrease in attenuation on entry into mixed state - demonstration of reduction in mean free path of electronic excitations by scattering from individual flux lines

Ultrasonic attenuation in the mixed state of niobium. E.M. Forgan and C.E. Gough, Phys. Letters 21, 133-135 (1966). 

Ultrasonic attenuation in a clean type II superconductor (niobium) in Meissner and Mixed states demonstrating scattering of electronic excitations by flux lines and related strong purity dependences 

  • Ultrasonic Attenuation and thermal Conduction in the mixed state of pure niobium. W.F. Vinen, E.M.Forgan, C.E. Gough and M.J. Hood , Physica 55, 94-113 (1971).
  • Ultrasonic Attenuation in niobium I: Purity dependence in normal and Meissner states, measurement and theory E.M. Forgan and C.E. Gough, J.Phys.F 3, 1596-1620 (1973).
  • Ultrasonic attenuatin in Niobium II:Measurements near Bc2. E.M.Forgan and C.E.Gough J.Phys.F 8, 1073-1098 (1978). 

The specific heat of a clean type-2 superconductor: Discontinuities at Tc2(B) and linear field dependence of heat capacity of niobium in superconducting mixed state demonstrating existence of the intermediate mixed state at low fields -flux line attraction rather than repulsion for intermediate kappa values 

  • The specific Heat of very pure niobium in the Meissner and mixed states, C.E Gough, Proceeding LT 13 (Denver) Vol 3, 112-115 (1974).
  • The mixed state heat capacity of niobium at constant magnetic induction, C.G.B.Baker, E.M. Forgan and C.E. Gough, Physica 107, 927-928 (1981). 

Fluctuation broadened peak and scaling laws demonstrated for heat capacity of niobium at second-order phase transition, later shown to dominate the behaviour of high temperature superconductors. Also simultaneous measurement of the ultrasonic attenuation providing a direct measure of |Dflucts|2. Also theoretical note correcting previous error in literature on affect of fluctuations below Tc2(B) 

  • Measurements of the fluctuation heat capacity of niobium in a magnetic field. S.P. Farrant and C.E. Gough, Phys.Rev. Lett. 34, 943-947 (1976).
  • Fluctuations and the attenuation of sound in a clean type-2 superconductor S.P. Farrant and C.E. Gough, Communications on Physics 2, 1-5 (1978).
  • Comments on the fluctuation contribution to sound attenuation in a clean type-II superconductor. C.E.Gough and D.J.Thouless, Phys.Rev.B,3733-5 (1978). 

Calculation of transition probabilities for macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a superconducting junction in a well-defined electrodynamic environment- demonstrating the importance of stray capacity in addition to that of the junction itself 

The Effect of the Resonant Mode Structure on Flux Tunnelling in in SQUIDs A.I.M. Rae and C.E. Gough. Journal of Low Temperature Physics 65, 399-423, 1986.

Musical Acoustics publications 

First measurements of resonant response of transverse waves on a string, also first demonstration of splitting of modes by anisotropic coupling at end-supports

  • A photo-detector for measuring string resonances of violin strings, G.C.B.Baker, C.M.Thair and C.E.Gough, Acustica 44, 70 (1980).
  • The Resonant Response of a Violin G-string and the Excitation of the Wolf-Note, C.E.Gough Acustica 44, 113-123 (1980). 

General theory of string resonances with non-rigid end-supports illustrating mode spitting and mode attraction depending on coupling strength and the damping of the coupled mode

The Theory of String Resonances on Musical Instruments, C.E.Gough,Acustica 49, 124 -141(1981).

The theory for the precession of transverse waves on a string caused by non-linear coupling between vibrations in the x- and y-directions and its supporting computatinal and experimental confirmation

The nonlinear free vibration of a damped elastic string. C.E.Gough,Acoust.Soc.Amer. 75, 1770- 1776 (1983). 

Above papers are reprinted in Research Papers in Violin Acoustics1975-93, Vols 1 and 2, edited by Carleen Hutchins (Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1996) See also references in N.H. Fletcher and T.D. Rossing, The Physics of Musical Instruments (Springer, Berlin, 1998) 

  • Musical Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy C.E. Gough. Proc. Inst.Acoustics, Acoustics 81, 339-342 (1981)Vibrations of Piano.
  • Strings and Coupling to the Soundboard A.R. Baxandall, I.S. Brown and C.E. Gough, Proc. Inst. Acoust. Acoustics 81, 331-334 (1981).
  • Radiation Efficiencies of Musical Instruments C.E.Gough, Proc. Inst. Acoustics, . Acoustics 84, 97-102 (1981).
  • The Physics of vibrating strings C.E.Gough, Phys. Bull. 36196-7 (1985). 
  • The Acoustics of stringed Instruments studied by String Resonances C.E.Gough, Catgut Acoustical Society 35, 22-28 (1981) .
  • Acoustical studies of stringed instruments using string resonances C.E.Gough. Proc. International Musical Acoustics Conference (SMAC83) ( Invited talk) pp 19-45 (Royal Swedish Academy of Music, Stokholm, 1985).
  • Acoustic Resonant scattering- a possible new technique for studying musical instruments. C.E.Gough. Proc. International Musical Acoustics Conference (SMAC83) pp 197-206 (Royal Swedish Academy of Music, Stokholm, 1985).