Dr Juliano Sarmento Cabral Dr. rer. nat.

Dr Juliano Sarmento Cabral

School of Biosciences
Associate Professor for Biodiversity Modelling and Environmental Change

Dr. Juliano Sarmento Cabral is one of the world’s experts in mechanistic modelling of eco-evolutionary biodiversity dynamics. He and his team have developed several mechanistic and process-based models for plant and animal populations, communities, and species ranges to demonstrate, for example, how ecological and genetic traits are both under selection under environmental change and how multiple environmental change drivers can have complex synergetic effects on plant biodiversity.


2001-2005: BSc in Biological Sciences at Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE, Recife, Brazil)

2004: Exchange Semester at Iowa State University (ISU, Ames, USA)

2006-2010: PhD in Ecology at University of Potsdam (Potsdam, Germany)


Dr. Juliano Sarmento Cabral did his undergraduate studies in biological sciences at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, with an exchange semester at Iowa State University, where he worked with invasive species. His bachelor thesis assessed edge effects on orchid and bromeliad epiphytes. He completed his PhD at University of Potsdam on the range dynamics of Proteaceae species of the Cape Region of South Africa under current conditions and under habitat loss and climate change scenarios in collaboration with the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), Cape Town, South Africa. He subsequently worked from 2010 to 2016 as postdoc at the University of Goettingen and on the German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research on island biogeography as well as on 3D forest and epiphyte spatiotemporal dynamics in collaboration with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), Panama City, Panama. Thereafter up to 2022 he worked as junior professor in Ecosystem Modelling at the University of Wuerzburg focusing on a range of projects from genomically-explicit eco-evolutionary feedbacks at local to biogeographical scales for plants and birds to drought tolerance of temperate tree species and range dynamics of terrestrial and aquatic plants as well terrestrial animals via German national and international collaborations.

Postgraduate supervision

Potential students to postgraduate supervision should be interested in one or more points:

  • Eco-evolutionary and biogeographical topics (e.g. evolutionary rescue, diversity gradients)
  • Environmental change and human impacts (e.g. habitat conversion, climate change, exploitation)
  • Computational work and mechanistic modelling (e.g. programming languages like R and Julia; agent-based models)
  • Tropical and species-rich systems
  • Range dynamics of plant and animal species


The key interests of Dr. Sarmento Cabral are the mechanisms underlying biodiversity patterns and dynamics across spatiotemporal scales. His works focus on population and community dynamics, species distributions and range dynamics, biodiversity gradients in static and dynamics environments, eco-evolutionary feedbacks, biogeography and the impacts of human activities and human-induced environmental change on biodiversity.

Other activities

Guest Private Docent (PD) at the Center for Computational and Theoretical Biology (CCTB), University of Wuerzburg, Germany

Associate Editor at Diversity & Distributions

Reviewer for over 30 international journals from various fields (e.g. botany, ecology, evolution, biogeography, computational biology, multidisciplinary) and funding agencies (e.g. DFG, NERC, Leverhulme, Humboldt)


I) Original works (peer-reviewed and preprints):

Koffel, T., Kremer, C.T., Bannar-Martin, K., Ernest, S.K.M., Eisenhauer, N., Roscher, C., Cabral, J.S., Leibold, M.A. (submitted). Modeling how community assembly alters the functioning of ecosystems. Oikos. Preprint: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.10.942656.

Paligi, S. S., Link, Roman M., Isasa, E., Bittencourt, P., Cabral, J. S., Jansen, S., Oliveira, R. S., Pereira, L., Schuldt, B. (submitted). Accuracy of the pneumatic method for estimating xylem vulnerability to embolism in temperate diffuse-porous tree species. Plant Biology. Under major revision. Preprint: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.15.431295

Figueiredo, L., Scherer, Cédric & Cabral, J. S. (in press). A simple kit to use computational notebooks for more openness, reproducibility, and productivity in research. PLOS Computational Biology. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1010356

Vedder, Daniel, Lens, Luc, Pellikka, Petri, Adhikari, Hari, Heiskanen, Janne, Engler, Jan, Sarmento Cabral, Juliano (2022). Hybridisation may aid evolutionary rescue of an endangered east african passerine. Evolutionary Applications, 15: 1177-1188. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13440

Moraes, A.P., Engel, T., Forni-Martins, E., Felix, L., Cabral, J. (2022). Are chromosome number and genome size associated with habit and environmental niche variables? Insights from the Neotropical orchids. Annals of Botany, 130: 11-25. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcac021.

Hietz, P., Wagner, K., Nunes Ramos, F., Cabral, J., Agudelo, C., Benavides, A. M., Cach-Pérez, M. J., Cardelús, C., Chilpa Galván, N., Costa, L., de Paula Oliveira, R., Einzmann, H., Farias, R., Guzmán Jacob, V., Kattge, J., Kessler, M., Kirby, C., Kreft, H., Kromer, T., Males, J., Monsalve Correa, S., Moreno-Chacón, M., Petter, G., Reyes-Garcia, C., Saldana, A., Schellenberger Costa, D., Taylor, A., Velázquez Rosas, N.,  Wanek, W., Woods, C., Zotz, G. (2021). Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology, 110: 340-358. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13802

Vedder, D., Leidinger, L., Cabral, J. S. (2021). Effects of species traits and abiotic factors during the stages of plant invasions. Ecology and Evolution, 11, 17106-17116. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8348

Lewerentz, A., Hoffmann, M., Cabral, J. S. (2021). Depth diversity gradients of macrophytes: shape, drivers and recent shifts. Ecology and Evolution, 11, 13830-13845. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8089

Petter, G., Kreft, H., Ong, Y., Zotz, G., Sarmento Cabral, J. (2021). Modeling the long-term dynamics of tropical forests: from leaf traits to whole-tree growth patterns. Ecological Modelling, 460, 109735.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2021.109735

Hagen, O., Flück, B., Fopp, F., Cabral, J. S., Hartig, F., Pontarp, M., Rangel, T. F., Pellissier, L. (2021) gen3sis: The GENeral Engine for Eco-Evolutionary SImulationS on the origins of biodiversity. Plos Biology, 19, e3001340. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001340

Leidinger, L., Vedder, D., Cabral, J.S. (2021). Temporal environmental variation imposes differential selection on genomic and ecological traits of virtual plant communities. Oikos, 130, 1100-1115. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.08172

Engler, J.O, Lawrie, Y., Cabral, J.S., Lens, L. (2021). Niche evolution reveals disparate signatures of speciation in the ‘great speciator‘ (White-eyes, Aves: genus Zosterops). Journal of Biogeography, 48: 1981-1993. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14128

Wohlwend, M., Craven, D., Weigelt, P., Seebens, H., Kreft, H., Winter, M., Zurell, D., Cabral, J. S., Essl, F., van Kleunen, M., Pergl, J., Pysek, P., Knight, T. (2021). Anthropogenic and environmental drivers shape diversity of non-native plants across the Pacific. Diversity and Distributions, 27: 1120-1133. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13260

Petter, G., Zotz, G., Kreft, H., Sarmento Cabral, J. (2021). Modelling the effects of forest dynamics, selective logging and fragment size on structure and dynamics of epiphyte communities. Ecology and Evolution, 11: 2937–2951. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7255

Bowler, D. E., Bjorkman, A., Dornelas, M., Myers-Smith, I., O’Connor, M., Navarro, L., Niamir, A., Supp, S., Waldock, C., Vellend, M., Blowes, S., Böhning-Gaese, K., Bruelheide, H., Elahi, R., Antão, L., Hines, J., Isbell, F., Jones, H., Magurran, A., Cabral, J., Winter, M., Bates, A. (2020). The geography of the Anthropocene differs between the land and the sea. People and Nature, 2, 380-394. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10071.

Matthews, T., Leidinger, L., Cabral, J. (2020). The effect of species extinctions on island biogeographic patterns. Ecological Research, 35, 372-381. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12093

Karger, D.N., Wüest, R., König, C., Cabral, J., Weigelt, P., Zimmermann, N., Linder, P. (2019). Disentangling the drivers of local species richness using probabilistic species pools. Journal of Biogeography, 47, 879-889. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13763

Etienne, R.S., Cabral, J.S., Hagen, O., Hartig, F., Hurlbert, A.H., Pellissier, L., Pontarp, M., Storch, D. (2019). A minimal model for the latitudinal diversity gradient suggests a dominant role for ecological limits. The American Naturalist, 194, E122-E133. https://doi.org/10.1086/705243

Cabral, J.S., Wiegand, K., Kreft, H. (2019 b). Interactions between ecological, evolutionary and environmental processes unveil complex dynamics of island biodiversity. Journal of Biogeography, 46: 1582-1597. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13606

Cabral, J.S., Whittaker, R.J., Wiegand, K., Kreft, H. (2019 a). Effects of time and isolation on plant diversity: testing island biogeography theory with an eco-evolutionary model. Journal of Biogeography, 46, 1569-1581. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13603

Chase, J., McGill, B., Thompson, P., Antao, L., Bates, A., Blowes, S., Dornelas, M., Gonzalez, A., Magurran, A., Supp, S., Winter, M., Bjorkman, A., Bruelheide, H., Byrnes, J., Cabral, J., Elahi, R., Gomez, C., Guzmán, H., Isbell, F., Myers-Smith, I., Jones, H., Hines, J., Vellend, M., Waldock, C., O’Connor, M. (2019). Species richness change across spatial scales. Oikos, 128, 1079-1091. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.05968

Radchuk, V., De Laender, F., Cabral, J. S., Boulangeat, I., Crawford, M., Bohn, F., De Raedt, J., Scherer, C., Svenning, J.-C., Thonicke, K., Schurr, F., Grimm, V., Kramer-Schadt, S. (2019). The dimensionality of stability depends on disturbance type. Ecology Letters, 22, 674-684. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.13226

Bannar-Martin, K., Kremer, C., Ernest, M., Leibold, M., Auge, H., Chase, J., Declerck, S., Eisenhauer, N., Harpole, S., Hillebrand, H., Isbell, F., Koffel, T., Larsen, S., Narwani, A., Petermann, J., Roscher, C., Sarmento Cabral, J., Supp, S. (2018). Integrating community assembly and biodiversity reveals new dimensions of ecosystem functions: the Community Assembly and the Functioning of Ecosystems (CAFE) approach. Ecology Letters 21: 167-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12895

Keil, P., Pereira, H.M., Cabral, J.S., Chase, J., May, F., Martins, I.S., Winter, M. (2018) Spatial scaling of extinction rates: theory and data reveal non-linearity, and a major upscaling and downscaling challenge. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27: 2-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12669

Moraes, A., de Mesquita Filho, J., Koehler, S., Cabral, J., Lopes Gomes, S., Viccini, L., Barros, F., Felix, L., Guerra, M., Forni-Martins, E. (2017) Karyotype diversity and genome size variation in Neotropical Maxillariinae orchids. Plant Biology 19: 298-308. https://doi.org/10.1111/plb.12527

Weigelt, P., Steinbauer, M.J., Cabral, J.S., Kreft, H. (2016) Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity. Nature 532: 99-102. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17443

Zurell, D., Thuiller, W., Pagel, J., Cabral, J.S., Muenkenmueller, T., Gravel, D., Dullinger, S., Normand, S., Schiffers, K., Moore, K.A., Zimmerman, N. (2016) Benchmarking novel approaches for modelling species range dynamics. Global Change Biology 22: 2651-2664. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13251

Karger, D.N., Cord, A., Kessler, M., Kreft, H., Kühn, I., Pompe, S., Sandel, B., Sarmento Cabral, J., Smith, A., Svenning, J.-C., Tuomisto, H., Weigelt, P., Wesche, K. (2016) Delineating probabilistic species pools in ecology and biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 489-501. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12422

Petter, G., Wagner, K., Wanek, W., Sánchez Delgado, E.J., Zotz, G., Cabral, J.S., Kreft, H. (2016) Functional leaf traits of vascular epiphytes: vertical trends within the forest, intra- and interspecific trait variability, and taxonomic signals. Functional Ecology 30: 188-198. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12490

Cabral, J.S., Petter, G., Mendieta-Leiva, G., Wagner, K., Zotz, G., Kreft, H. (2015) Branchfall as a demographic filter for epiphyte communities: Lessons from a forest floor-based sampling. PloS one 10: e0128019. 10.1371/journal.pone.0128019

de Oliveira, I.G., Moraes, A.P., de Almeida, E.M., de Assis, F.N.M., Cabral, J.S., de Barros, F., Felix, L.F. (2015). Chromosomal evolution in Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) with emphasis on the genus Acianthera: chromosome numbers and heterochromatin. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 178: 102-120. https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12273

Cabral, J.S., Weigelt, P., Kissling, W.D., Kreft, H. (2014) Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect α-, β- and γ-diversities on oceanic archipelagos. Proceedings of Royal Society of London B 281: 20133246. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.3246

Sarmento Cabral, J., Jeltsch F., Midgley G.F., Higgins S.I., Phillips S.I., Rebelo A.G., Rouget M., Thuiller W., Schurr F.M. (2013) Impacts of past habitat loss and future climate change on the range dynamics of South African Proteaceae. Diversity and Distributions 19: 363-376. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12011

Cabral, J.S., Kreft, H. (2012) Linking ecological niche, community ecology and biogeography: insights from a mechanistic niche model. Journal of Biogeography 39: 2212-2224. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12010

Cabral, J.S., Bond W.J., Midgley G.F., Rebelo A.G., Thuiller W., Schurr F.M. (2011) Effects of harvesting flowers from shrubs on the persistence and abundance of wild shrub populations at multiple spatial extents. Conservation Biology 25: 73-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01628.x

Cabral, J.S., Schurr, F.M. (2010) Estimating demographic models for the range dynamics of plant species. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 85-97. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00492.x

Koehler, S., Cabral, J.S., Whiten, W.M., Williams, N.H., Singer, R.B., Neubig, K.M., Guerra, M., Souza, A.P., Amaral, M.C.E. (2008) Molecular phylogeny of the neotropical genus Christensonella (Orchidaceae, Maxillariinae): species delimitations and insights into chromosome evolution. Annals of Botany 102: 491-507. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcn128

Cabral, J.S., Felix, L.P., Guerra, M. (2006) Heterochromatin diversity and its co-localization with 5S and 45S rDNA sites in chromosomes of four Maxillaria species (Orchidaceae). Genetics and Molecular Biology 29: 659-664. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572006000400015 


II) Review and perspective (peer-reviewed and preprints):

Sarmento Cabral, Juliano, Mendoza-Ponce, Alma, da Silva, André Pinto, Oberpriller, Johannes, Mimet, Anne, Kieslinger, Julia, Berger, Thomas, Blechschmidt, Jana, Brönner, Maximilian, Classen, Alice, Fallert, Stefan, Hartig, Florian, Hof, Christian, Hoffmann, Markus, Knoke, Thomas, Krause, Andreas, Lewerentz, Anne, Pohle, Perdita, Raeder, Uta, Rammig, Anja, Redlich, Sarah, Rubanschi, Sven, Stetter, Christian, Weisser, Wolfgang, Vedder, Daniel, Verburg, Peter H., Zurell, Damaris. (2022). The road to integrate climate change effects on land-use change in regional biodiversity models. Submitted to People & Nature. Preprint in Authorea https://doi.org/10.22541/au.164608831.19029067/v1

Kéfi, S., Saade, C., Berlow, E. L., Cabral, Juliano S., Fronhofer, E. A. (2022) Scaling up our understanding of tipping points. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society London B, 377: 20210386. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2021.0386

Vedder, D., Ankenbrand, M., Cabral, J. (2021) Dealing with software complexity in individual-based models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 12, 2324-2333. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.13716.

Wüest, R. O., Zimmermann, N. E., Zurell, D., Alexander, J., Fritz, S. A., Hof, C., Kreft, H., Normand, S., Sarmento Cabral, J., Szekely, E., Thuiller, W., Wikelski, M., Karger, D. N. (2020). Macroecology in the age of big data – where to go from here? Journal of Biogeography, 47, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13633

Shoemaker, L.G., Sullivan, L.L., Donohue, I., Cabral, J.S., Williams, R.J., Mayfield, M.M., Chase, J.M., Chu, C., Harpole, W.S., Huth, A., HilleRisLambers, J., James, A.R.M., Kraft, N.J.B., May, F., Muthukrishnan, R., Satterlee, S., Taubert, F., Wang, Xugao, Wiegand, T., Yang, Q., Abbott, K.C. (2020). Integrating stochasticity into community ecology. Ecology, 101, e02922. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2922

Figueiredo, L., Krauß, J., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Cabral, J.S. (2019). Understanding extinction debts: spatio-temporal scales, mechanisms and a roadmap for future research. Ecography, 42, 1973-1990. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.04740

Pontarp, M., Bunnefeld, L., Cabral, J. S., Etienne, R. S., Fritz, S. A., Gillespie, R., Graham, C. H., Hagen, O., Hartig, F., Huang, S., Jansson, R., Maliet, O., Münkemüller, T., Pellissier, L., Rangel, T. F., Storch, D., Wiegand, T., Hurlbert, A. H. (2019). The latitudinal diversity gradient - novel understanding through mechanistic eco-evolutionary models. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 34, 211-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2018.11.009

Leidinger, L., Cabral, J.S. (2017). Biodiversity dynamics on islands: explicitly accounting for causality in mechanistic models. Diversity 9: 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/d9030030

Cabral, J.S., Valente, L., Hartig, F. (2017) Mechanistic models in macroecology and biogeography: state-of-art and prospects. Ecography 40: 267-280. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02480

Kalinkat, G., Cabral, J.S., Darwall, W., Ficetola, F., Fisher, J., Giling, D., Gosselin, M.-P. Grossart, H.-P. Jähnig, S., Jeschke, J., Knopf, K., Larsen, S., Onandia, G., Pätzig, M., Saul, W.-C., Singer, G., Jarić, I. (2016) Flagship umbrella species needed for conservation of overlooked biodiversity. Conservation Biology 31: 481-485. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12813

Borregaard, M., Amorim, I., Borges, P., Cabral, J., Fernández-Palacios, J., Field, R., Heaney, L., Kreft, H., Matthews, T., Olesen, J., Price, J., Rigal, F., Steinbauer, M., Triantis, K., Valente, L., Weigelt, P., Whittaker, R. (2016) Oceanic island biogeography through the lens of the General Dynamic Model: assessment and prospect. Biological Reviews 92: 830-853. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12256

Schymanski, S.J., Dormann, C.F., Cabral, J., Chuine, I., Graham, C., Hartig, F., Kearney, M., Morin, X., Römermann, C., Schröder, B., Singer, A. (2013) Process, correlation and parameter fitting in species distribution models: a response to Kriticos et al. 2012. Journal of Biogeography 40: 611-613. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12075 

Schurr, F.M., Pagel, J., Cabral, J.S., Groeneveld, J., Bykova, O., O'Hara, R.B., Hartig, F., Kissling, W.D., Linder, H.P., Midgley, G.F., Schröder, B., Singer, A., Zimmermann, N.E. (2012) How to understand species' niches and range dynamics: a demographic research agenda for biogeography. Journal of Biogeography 39: 2146-2162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02737.x

Dormann, C.F., Schymanski, S.J., Cabral, J., Chuine, I., Graham, C., Hartig, F., Kearney, M., Morin, X., Römermann, C., Schröder, B., Singer, A. (2012) Correlation and process in species distribution models: bridging a dichotomy. Journal of Biogeography 39: 2119-2131. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02659.x

Zurell D., Berger U., Cabral J.S., Jeltsch F., Meynard C.N., Münkemüller T., Nehrbass N., Pagel J., Reineking B., Schröder B., Grimm V. (2010) The virtual ecologist approach: simulating data and observers. Oikos 119: 622-635.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.18284.x


III) Chapters in specialist books (peer-reviewed):

Krug, C.B., Brandl, R., Boonzaier, C., Cabral, J.S., Esler, K.J., Grant, P.B.C., Heelemann, S., Horn, A., Keil, M., Kongor, R.Y., Meyer, J., Nottebrock, H., Poschlod, P., Reisch, C., Rösner, S., Samways, M. J., Schurr, F., Vrdoljak, S. (2010) Keeping the Cape Lowland archipelago afloat. In: Biodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 3: Implications for landuse and management. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek, pp. 151-179. (published original paper, in English)

Siqueira-Filho, J.A., Santos, A.M.M., Leme, E.M.C., Cabral, J.S. (2006) Atlantic forest fragments in Pernambuco and Alagoas and theirs bromeliads: distribution, composition, richness and conservation. In: Siqueira-Filho, J.A., Leme, E.M.C. (eds.) Fragments of the Atlantic Forest of Northeast Brazil: Biodiversity, Conservation and the Bromeliads. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 101-131. (published original paper, provided both in English and in Portuguese bock editions)


IV) Original works in national conferences (peer-reviewed):

Cabral, J.S., de Vasconcelos, S.L., Rodrigues, M.F., Pontual, R.M., Mascarenhas, L.L. (2003) Dieta de coruja murucututu (Pulsatrix perspicillata perspicillata Lathan, 1790) no Campus de UFRPE, Recife, PE. In: VI Congresso de Ecologia do Brasil: Volume III. Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, pp. 273-274. (published original paper, in Portuguese)


V) Original works in national journals (non-peer-reviewed):

Lewerentz, A., Cabral, J.S. (in press) Wasserpflanzen in Bayern: Der Blick auf den See verrät nicht, was unter der Oberfläche passiert. Fränkische Geographische Gesellschaft.

Lewerentz, A., Schantz, D., Gröh, J., Knote, A., von Mammen, S., Cabral, J.S. (in press) bioDIVERsity: ein Computerspiel gegen das Imageproblem von Wasserpflanzen. Fränkische Geographische Gesellschaft.


VI) Theses:

Cabral, J.S. (2010) Demographic processes determining the range dynamics of plant species, and their consequences for biodiversity maintenance in the face of environmental change. PhD Thesis, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, 124 p. (original works, in English, site: http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2010/4118/)

Cabral, J.S. (2005) Edge Effects on understorey epiphytic Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae of two different habitats in a North-Eastern Atlantic Forest fragment. Bachelor Thesis, UFRPE, Recife, 56 p. (original work, in Portuguese)

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