Dr Paolo Candio PhD

Paolo Candio

Institute of Applied Health Research
Research Fellow

Contact details

University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Paolo’s research interests are in the economics of health promotion, particularly population-level and environmental interventions to promote physical activity in the general population. Paolo is interested in the development of economic methods for evaluation of systems-wide interventions and supporting optimal decision-making in public health.

Paolo has recently joined the new Centre for Economics of Obesity led by NIHR Professor Emma Frew, following a three-year post doc at the University of Oxford.


  • PhD in Health Economics (2019), University of Leeds
  • MSc in Nutrition, Physical Activity and Public Health (2016), University of Bristol
  • BSc in Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (2012), Universita’ San Raffaele Roma
  • MSc in Management and Work Consultancy (2006), University of Trieste
  • BSc in Economics (2003), University of Trieste


Paolo was awarded his PhD in Health Economics in 2019 by the University of Leeds. His PhD was funded by a NIHR White Rose Scholarship and focussed on the methodological challenges in conducting economic evaluations of universal programmes to promote healthy behaviours. As part of his PhD studies, he developed a decision-analytic model for economic evaluation and equity impact analysis of physical activity interventions in the adult general population.

Toward the end of his doctoral studies, he joined the Health Economics Research Centre at the University of Oxford where he was responsible for the economic modelling and analysis components of a variety of research projects. He developed three decision-analytic models for evaluation of a portfolio of stroke interventions across 32 European countries.


  • Public health economics
  • Physical activity modelling
  • Equity impact analysis


Recent publications


Candio, P, Violato, M, Luengo-Fernandez, R & Leal, J 2022, 'Cost-effectiveness of home-based stroke rehabilitation across Europe: a modelling study', Health Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2022.01.007

Candio, P, Meads, D, Hill, AJ & Bojke, L 2022, 'Does providing everyone with free-of-charge organised exercise opportunities work in public health?', Health Policy, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 129-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2022.01.001

Jones, D, Candio, P, Shakir, R, Ntentas, G, Ramroth, J, Gray, A & Cutter, D 2022, 'Informing radiotherapy decisions in stage I/IIa Hodgkin lymphoma: modelling life expectancy using radiation dosimetry', Blood Advances, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 909-919. https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006254

Manfrin, A, Jackson, C, Campisi, R, Oteri, A, Copani, A, Desideri, E, Tsiachristas, A, Candio, P, Di Tomaso, G, Vitale, M & Crimi, N 2021, 'Better outcomes for everybody evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmacist-led intervention, delivered by community pharmacists in collaboration with physicians, in improving disease control, compared with usual care, in asthma and COPD patients during and after COVID-19: A protocol for a pragmatic, parallel randomised controlled trial', Medicine: Case Reports and Study Protocols, vol. 2, no. 9, e0158. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD9.0000000000000158

Duch, R, Roope, LSJ, Violato, M, Fuentes Becerra, M, Robinson, TS, Bonnefon, J, Friedman, J, Loewen, PJ, Mamidi, P, Melegaro, A, Blanco, M, Vargas, J, Seither, J, Candio, P, Gibertoni Cruz, A, Hua, X, Barnett, A & Clarke, PM 2021, 'Citizens from 13 countries share similar preferences for COVID-19 vaccine allocation priorities', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 118, no. 38, e2026382118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2026382118

Candio, P, Hill, AJ, Poupakis, S, Pulkki-Brännström, A-M, Bojke, C & Gomes, M 2021, 'Copula models for addressing sample selection in the evaluation of public health programme: an application to the Leeds Let’s Get Active study', Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, vol. 19, pp. 305–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40258-020-00629-x

Candio, P, Meads, D, Hill, AJ & Bojke, L 2021, 'Cost-effectiveness of a proportionate universal offer of free exercise: Leeds Let’s Get Active', Journal of Public Health, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 876–886. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdaa113

Candio, P, Violato, M, Leal, J & Luengo-Fernandez, R 2021, 'Cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of nonminor ischemic stroke across Europe', Stroke, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 664–673. https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.120.031027

Roope, LSJ, Barnett, A, Candio, P, Violato, M, Duch, R & Clarke, PM 2021, 'Is there broad-based support in high-income countries for COVID-19 vaccine donation? Evidence from seven countries', Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40258-021-00696-8

Candio, P, Pouwels, KB, Meads, D, Hill, AJ, Bojke, L & Williams, C 2021, 'Modelling decay in effectiveness for evaluation of behaviour change interventions: a tutorial for public health economists', European Journal of Health Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-021-01417-7

Candio, P, Meads, D, Hill, AJ & Bojke, L 2021, 'Taking a local government perspective for economic evaluation of a population-level programme to promote exercise', Health Policy, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 651-657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2021.02.012

Becchetti, L, Candio, P & Salustri, F 2021, 'Vaccine uptake and constrained decision making: the case of Covid-19', Social Science & Medicine, vol. 289, 114410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114410

Luengo-Fernandez, R, Violato, M, Candio, P & Leal, J 2020, 'Economic burden of stroke across Europe: A population-based cost analysis', European Stroke Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 17-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/2396987319883160


Roope, LSJ, Candio, P, Kiparoglou, V, McShane, H, Duch, R & Clarke, PM 2021, 'Lessons from the pandemic on the value of research infrastructure', Health Research Policy and Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, 54. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-021-00704-2

Roope, LSJ, Buckell, J, Becker, F, Candio, P, Violato, M, Sindelar, JL, Barnett, A, Duch, R & Clarke, PM 2020, 'How should a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine be allocated? health economists need to be ready to take the baton', PharmacoEconomics - Open, vol. 4, pp. 557-561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41669-020-00228-5

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