Dr Christina Yap MSci, PhD, CStat

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences
Reader in Biostatistics and Clinical Trials

Contact details

Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit (CRCTU)
Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences
College of Medical and Dental Sciences
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Dr Christina Yap is a Reader in Biostatistics and Clinical Trials at Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit (CRCTU), within the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences at the University of Birmingham.

She is a chartered statistician with over 15 years’ experience in the design and analysis of clinical trials. 

Within the CRCTU, Christina leads the early phase cancer trials portfolio (which comprises of more than 25 trials in solid tumours and haematological diseases), as well as late phase portfolios of Head and Neck cancer and skin cancer. She also has broad experience in other disease areas, both cancer and non-cancer, working collaboratively as a lead statistical methodologist in several trials. 

Christina has a strong methodological interest in the development of efficient trial designs and analysis to support current and future research; motivated by a keen desire to ensure that trials are efficient and sufficiently robust to provide the results to influence clinical practice.  To date, she has led the implementation of innovative, efficient designs in more than 10 trials (ranging from early phase I/II dose-finding to multi-arm multi-stage randomised Phase II/III designs, including basket, umbrella and platform designs and the application of Bayesian approaches to such settings), successfully translating novel designs into practice. 

Christina is an internationally recognised expert in the design and implementation of efficient, adaptive designs in trials. She has been invited to speak at international conferences and symposiums, provide training courses to both statisticians and clinicians, and sits on international and national data monitoring committees. She is a funding panel member of CRUK Clinical Research Committee, MRC Confidence in Concept, and a co-opted member of CRUK Clinical Expert Research Panel; and an appointed member of two National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Clinical Studies Groups: Head and Neck Cancer and Skin Cancer. She is also part of the MRC Adaptive Designs Working Group and Stratified Medicine Working Group, NIHR Early Phase Group and an advisor for the West Midlands Research Design Service.  


  • Chartered Statistician 2010
  • PhD in Statistics, University of Glasgow, 2004
  • Associate Practitioner of the Higher Education Academy 2006
  • Master in Science (Mathematics and Statistics), University of Glasgow, 1999


  • Practical application of Bayesian approaches to design and analysis of clinical trials
  • Phase I dose-finding trials: practical application of new designs for statisticians
  • Practicalities in designing, grant funding, setting up and running a Continual Reassessment Method (CRM) dose finding phase I trial
  • Medicine and Surgery MBChB Year 2 Medical Statistics small group teaching
  • MSc in Clinical Oncology


  • Adaptive Trial Designs
  • Early Phase I/II trial designs, with a focus on dose-finding designs such as Continual Reassessment Method, joint evaluation of safety and activity and randomized Phase II selection designs
  • Implementation and analysis of innovative, efficient designs in clinical trials in various disease areas including leukaemia, head and neck, skin and liver
  • Bayesian designs and analysis in clinical trial
  • Flexible modelling
  • Acute and Chronic Health Effects of Air Pollution
  • Detecting discontinuity in time series and spatial data using nonparametric regression techniques

Other activities

  • Funding panel member of CRUK Clinical Research Committee (2018 – present)
  • Co-opted funding panel member of CRUK Clinical Expert Review Panel (2018 – present)
  • Funding panel member of MRC Confidence in Concept (2017 – present)
  • Appointed member of NCRI Head and Neck Cancer Clinical Study Group (2016 - present)
  • Appointed member of NCRI Skin Cancer Clinical Study Group - selected member (2017 - present)
  • Appointed member of NCRI Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad)  (2015-2018)
  • Member of the MRC Hub Network Adaptive Designs Working Group (2012- present)
  • Member of the MRC Hub Network Stratified Medicine Working Group (2018- present)
  • Member of NCRI Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Subgroup (2014 – present)
  • West Midlands Research Design Service Advisor (2014 – present)
  • Data Monitoring Committee Members of several international and national trials
  • NIHR Early Phase Working Group
  • External peer reviewer of grants for MRC EME, HTA, NIHR Health Services and Delivery Research (HS&DR) Programme, Arthritis UK and CRUK


Craddock C, Slade D, Santo C De, Wheat R, Ferguson P, Hodgkinson A, Brock K, Cavenagh J, Ingram W, Dennis M, Malladi R, Siddique S, Mussai F and Yap C (2018) Combination lenalidomide and azacitidine: a novel salvage therapy in patients who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (in press; Journal of Clinical Oncology)

Wheeler GM, Mander AP, Bedding A, Brock K, Cornelius V, Grieve AP, Jaki T, Love S, Odondi L, Weir C, Yap C and Bond SJ (2018)  How to design a dose-finding study using the Continual Reassessment Method. BMC medical research methodology (in press; BMC Med Res Methodol.)

Mergental H,  Stephenson BTF, Laing RW, Kirkham AJ, Neil DA, Wallace LL, Boeton YL, Widmer J, Bhogal RH, Perera MT, Smith A, Reynolds GM, Yap C,  Hübscher SG, Mirza DF, Afford SC (2018). Development of Clinical Criteria for Functional Assessment to Predict Primary Non-function of High-risk Livers using Normothermic Machine Perfusion. Liver Transplantation, 24(10), 1453-1469

Pallman P, Bedding AW, Choodari-Oskooei B, Dimairo  M, Flight L, Hampson LV, Holmes J, Mander A, Odondi Lang’o, Sydes MR, Villar S, Wason JMS, Weir CJ, Wheeler GM, Yap C, Jaki T (2018) Adaptive designs in clinical trials: why use them, and how to run and report them. BMC medicine, 16(1), 29.

Mander A, Wheeler G and Yap C (2018).  Practical implementation of dose-response adaptive trials. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online. 1–6.

Yap C and Cheung YK (2018). Sequential elimination in multi-arm multi-stage selection trials. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online.

Yap C, Billingham LJ, Cheung YK, Craddock, C and O'Quigley, J (2017). Dose Transition Pathways: The missing link between complex dose-finding designs and simple decision-making. Clinical Cancer Research, pp.clincanres-0582.

Brock K, Billingham L, Copland M, Yap C. “Implementing the EffTox Dose-Finding Design in the Matchpoint Trial”. BMC Research Methodology 2017, 17(1), 112

Newsome PN,Fox R,…..,Yap C and  Forbes SJ (2017)  REpeated AutoLogous Infusions of STem cells In Cirrhosis (REALISTIC), a multicentre, phase II, open-label, randomised controlled trial of repeated autologous infusions of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) mobilised CD133+ bone marrow stem cells in patients with cirrhosis.”  Lancet Hep and Gastro 2017

Harrison C, Mead A, Panchal A, Fox S, Yap C, Houlton A et al (2017) “Ruxolitinib vs Best Available Therapy in patients with ET who are intolerant or resistant to Hydroxycarbamide” Blood, 2017

Laing RW, Mergental H, Yap C, Kirkham A, Whilku M, Barton D, ... & Perera MTP (2017). Viability testing and transplantation of marginal livers (VITTAL) using normothermic machine perfusion: study protocol for an open-label, non-randomised, prospective, single-arm trial. BMJ open, 7(11), e017733.

Pratt G, Yap C, Oldreive C, Slade D, Bishop R, Griffiths M, Dyer MJS, Fegan C, Oscier D, Pettitt A, Matutes E, Devereux S, Allsup D, Bloor A, Hillmen P, Follows G, Rule S, Moss P and Stankovic T (2017), A multi-centre phase I trial of the PARP inhibitor olaparib in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, T-prolymphocytic leukaemia or mantle cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. doi:10.1111/bjh.14793

Love, SB, Brown, S, Weir, CJ, Harbron, C, Yap, C, Gaschler-Markefski, B, Matcham, J, Caffrey, L, McKevitt, C, Clive, S and Craddock, C et al (2017). Embracing model-based designs for dose-finding trials. British journal of cancer, 117(3), p.332.

Craddock C, Jilani N, Siddique S, Yap C, Khan J, Nagra S, Ward J, Ferguson P, Hazlewood P, Buka R, Vyas P (2015). Tolerability and clinical activity of post-transplantation azacitidine in patients allografted for acute myeloid leukemia treated on the RICAZA trial. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 29;22(2):385-90.

Mussai, FJ, Yap, C, Mitchell, C, & Kearns, P (2015): Challenges of Clinical Trial Design for Targeted Agents Against Pediatric Leukemias. Frontiers in Oncology, 4, 374

Yap, C, Lin, X, & Cheung, YKK (2015). Sequential Elimination in Multi-Arm Selection Trials. Modern Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials: Statistical and Practical Aspects, 81, 411-426, edited by Sverdlov, A (ed)

Yap C, Pettitt A and Billingham L (2013):  Screened selection design for randomised phase II oncology trials: an example in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.  BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013; 13: 87.

Yap C, Beverland IJ, Heal MR, Cohen GR, Robertson C, Henderson DEJ, Ferguson NS, Hart CL, Morris G and Agius RM (2012): Association between long-term exposure to air pollution and specific causes of mortality in Scotland. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2012, 69:916-924

Beverland I, Robertson C, Yap C, Heal MR, Cohen, GR, Henderson DEJ, Hart CL and Agius, RM (2012) Comparison of models for estimation of long-term exposure to air pollution in cohort studies. Atmospheric Environment, 62. 530-539.

Tho LM, Glegg M, Paterson J, Yap C, MacLeod A, McCabe M, McDonald AC (2006) Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 66(2): 505-13

Beverland IJ, Cohen GR,  Heal MR, Carder M,  Yap C, Robertson C, Hart CL and Agius RM (2012): A Comparison of Short-term and Long-term Air Pollution Exposure Associations with Mortality in Two Cohorts in Scotland Environ Health Perspect. 2012; 120(9): 1280–1285.

Walji N, Chue A L, Yap C,  Rogers L J, El-Modir A, Chan K K, Singh K, Fernando. I N (2010): Is There a Role for Adjuvant Hysterectomy after Suboptimal Concurrent Chemoradiation in Cervical Carcinoma? Clinical Oncology 2010, 22(2), 140–146

King A, Barton D, Beard H, Moore J, Than N, Corbett C, Thomas J, Guo K, Guha I, Hollyman D, Stocken D, Yap C, Fox R,  Forbes SJ and Newsome PN (2015): Repeated AutoLogous Infusions of STem cells In Cirrhosis (REALISTIC), a multicentre, phase II, open-label, randomised controlled trial of repeated autologous infusions of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) mobilised CD133+ bone marrow stem cells in patients with cirrhosis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ open 5.3 (2015): e007700.

Tho LM, McIntyre A, Rosst A, Gallagher C, Yap C, Ritchie DM, Canney PA (2006) Acute Supraclavicular Skin Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer; An Evaluation of the “T” Grip Method of Patient Positioning. Clinical Oncology 18(2):133-8

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