Dr Mike Parkes MA DPhil FHEA

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences
Senior Lecturer in Applied Physiology

Contact details

+44 (0)121 414 6977
+44 (0)121 414 4121
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT


M.A., D.Phil. (Oxford) , FHEA


- Human Physiology
- Control of Breathing
- Breath Holding
- Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia
- Thermoregulation
- Exercise Physiology
- Hypocapnia and Brain Function
- Mechanical Ventilation & Mechanical Hyperventilation

His major research interest is in the control of breathing. His research has covered the control of breathing movements in utero and the initiation of breathing at birth. In adults his research has included the fundamental properties of neurones in the respiratory network, the effects of raising body temperature on the control of breathing, the breakpoint of breath-holding and the contribution of the central respiratory rhythm to respiratory sinus arrhythmia. This research is published in international journals of physiology and applied physiology as well as in international clinical journals and as a series of chapters in books.

Other activities

He acts as a referee for journals in physiology, sports science and psychology and a reader for publishers. He is a member of the Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society and is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.


* Contact Dr M.J.Parkes (M.J.Parkes@Bham.ac.uk) and request a reprint. Remember to specify the particular publication required.) and request a reprint. Remember to specify the particular publication required.

Julien, C., Parkes, M. J.,  et al.,, (2009). Comments on Point:Counterpoint: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is due to a central mechanism vs. respiratory sinus arrhythmia is due to the baroreflex mechanism. Journal of Applied Physiology 106, 1745-1749.

Sheppard, J. P., Barker, T., Clutton-Brock, T. H., Frenneaux, M., & Parkes, M. J. (2009). Modified electrode placement changes wave amplitudes but not ST height on the 12 lead electrocardiograms of healthy subjects.  Journal of Physiology Proceedings PC105.

Parkes, M. J. (2008). So what does cause the breakpoint of breath-holding? Physiology News 73, 25-27.

Parkes, M. J. (2008). Lack of a role for arterial chemoreceptors in the breakpoint of breath-holding. Physiology News 70, 34-35.

Parkes, M. J. (2008). Lack of a role for arterial chemoreceptors in the breakpoint of breath-holding. Physiology News 70, 34-35. *

Parkes, M. J. (2007). What happens to the central respiratory rhythm during breath-holding? Physiology News 68, 16-18. *

Parkes, M. J. (2006). Breath-holding and its breakpoint. Experimental Physiology 91, 1-15

Rutherford, J. J., Clutton-Brock, T. H., & Parkes, M. J. (2005). Hypocapnia reduces the T wave of the electrocardiogram in normal human subjects. American Journal of Physiology 289, R148-R155. * *

Pattinson, K. T. S., Bowes, M., Wise, R. G., Parkes, M. J., & Morrell, M. J. (2005). Evaluation of a non-invasive method of assessing opioid induced respiratory depression. Anaesthesia 60, 426-432.*

Cooper, H. E., Parkes, M. J., & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2003). CO2-dependent components of sinus arrhythmia from the start of breath-holding in Man. American Journal of Physiology 285, H841-H848.**

Cooper, H. E., Clutton-Brock, T. H., & Parkes, M. J. (2004). The contribution of the respiratory rhythm to sinus arrhythmia in normal unanesthetized subjects during mechanical hyperventilation with positive pressure. American Journal of Physiology 286, H402-H411. *

Boden, A. G., Harris, M. C., & Parkes, M. J. (2000). The preoptic area in the hypothalamus is the source of the additional respiratory drive at raised body temperature in anaesthetised rats. Experimental Physiology 85, 527-538. *

Boden, A. G., Harris, M. C., & Parkes, M. J. (2000). A respiratory drive in addition to the increase in CO2 production at raised body temperature in rats. Experimental Physiology 85, 308-318. *

Cooper, H.E., Clutton-Brock, T.H. & Parkes, M.J. (2000). Hypocapnia reduces respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mechanical hyperventilation in awake humans. Journal of Physiology 528P. *

Cooper, H.E., Clutton-Brock, T.H. & Parkes, M.J. (2000). In humans is respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reduced in normocapnia during mechanical ventilation with positive pressure when breathing is detectable? Journal of Physiology 525, 32P. *

Cooper, H. E., Clutton-Brock, T. H., & Parkes, M. J. (2000). Sinus arrhythmia persists at eupneic frequencies during breath-holding. Journal of Physiology 523, 291P. *

Boden, A.G. Harris, M.C., & Parkes, M.J. (1998). The apneic threshold for CO2 in the anesthetized rat: fundamental properties under steady state conditions. Journal of Applied Physiology 85, 898-907. *

Lara, J.P., Parkes, M.J., Silva-Carvhalo, L., Izzo, P.N., Dawid-Milner, M.S., and Spyer, K.M.(1994). Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of stimulation of cell bodies of the parabrachial nucleus in the anaesthetised rat. Journal of Physiology 477, 321-330. *

Parkes, M.J., Lara Munoz, J.P., Izzo, P.N. & Spyer, K.M. (1994). Responses of ventral respiratory neurones in the rat to vagus stimulation and the functional division of expiration. Journal of Physiology 476, 131-139.  *

Parkes, M.J. (1992). Fetal behavioural states, sleep and wakefulness? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 44B, 231-244. *

Fisk, N.M., Parkes, M.J., Moore, P.J., Wigglesworth, J., Hanson, M.A. & Rodeck, C.H. (1992). Mimicking low amniotic pressure by chronic pharyngeal drainage does not impair lung development in fetal sheep American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 166, 991-996. *

Fisk, N.M., Parkes, M.J., Moore, P.J., Haidar, A., Wigglesworth, J. & Hanson, M.A. (1991). Fetal breathing during chronic lung liquid loss leading to pulmonary hypoplasia.Early Human Development 27, 53-63. *

Fisk, N.M., Giussani, D.L., Parkes, M.J. & Hanson, M.A. (1991). Amnioinfusion increases amniotic pressure in pregnant sheep but does not alter fetal acid/base status. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 165, 1459-1463. *

Fisk, N.M., Nicolaidis, P.K., Arulkumaran, S., Weg, M.W., Tanirandorn, Y., Nicolini, U., Parkes, M.J., Rodeck, C.H. (1991). Vibroacoustic stimulation is not associated with sudden fetal catecholamine release. Early Human Development 25, 11-17. *

Parkes, M.J. (1991). In ed. M.A. Hanson "The fetal and Neonatal Brainstem". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Sleep and Wakefulness - do they occur in utero? pp 230-256. *

Parkes, M.J., Moore, P.J., Moore, D.J., Fisk, N.M. & Hanson, M.A. (1991). Behavioral changes in fetal sheep caused by vibroacoustic stimulation; the effects of cochlear ablation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 164, 1336-1434. *

Parkes, M.J. (1988). In ed. F. Cockburn "Fetal and Neonatal Growth". Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester. Endocrine factors in fetal growth. pp 33-48. *

Parkes, M.J., Hill, D.J. (1985). Journal of Endocrinology 104, 193-199. Lack of growth hormone- dependent somatomedins or growth retardation in hypophysectomised fetal lambs. *

Parkes, M.J., Bassett, J.M. (1985). Journal of Endocrinology 105, 379-382. Antagonism by growth hormone of insulin action in fetal sheep. *

Hofmeyr, G., Bamford, O.S., Gianopolous, J.G., Parkes, M.J., Dawes, G.S. (1985).American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology  152, 905-910. The partial association of uterine contractions with changes in electrocortical activity, breathing, and PaO2 in the fetal lamb: effects of brain stem section.*