Second Year Modules

Research Skills in English Language 

(20 credits)

This module supports and prepares students to undertake extensive research projects in English language. It aims to expand students’ understanding of key areas within the study of English language, with emphasis on the methodologies and objectives of language-studies research. It provides students with opportunities to conduct independent research as a foundation for a dissertation or research project. Students are required to conduct both group and independent projects in which they collect and analyse data using appropriate models.

English Language Options

Example optional modules may include:

English Phonetics and Phonology

(20 credits) 

The module expands students' core linguistic knowledge gained at Level 1, especially in the areas of phonetics and phonology.  Topics covered will include pronunciation in continuous speech, allophonic variation, narrow phonetic transcription, English accents, accent prestige and vilification, the phoneme, stress and intonation, the syllable and morphophonology. Particular attention is given to logical categorisation of forms, accuracy and economy in description and the ability to research and evaluate relevant supporting information. Knowledge gained in this module should both support and provide inspiration for the independent research strand of the English Language programmes.

Psycholinguistics 

(20 credits)

This module looks at how language is represented and processed in the human mind. We examine experimental evidence and theoretical models of the different levels of language to understand how we access words and concepts, how we process words visually and auditorily, how we understand complex syntactic structures, how we plan and produce spoken language and how we can investigate the pragmatic aspects of language in use. The module focuses on an objective, data driven approach, where carefully designed language experiments are at the heart of our understanding. To support this we will spend time considering aspects of experimental design and analysis and students will take part in a lab session to experience a real language experiment for themselves. Broader topics on language development and language in the brain will also be introduced.

Sociolinguistics 

(20 credits)

This module explores the relationship between language and society, examining how variation in sound, syntax, morphology and lexis distribute across different aspects of society - for example, the correlation between the use of particular linguistic forms and social class groups, genders, age groups and geographical areas. The module considers the associations that develop between aspects of a speaker's identity and different linguistic forms, the role of prestige (overt and covert), stigmatization and the significance of one's social networks and communities and how these facets of variation lead to large-scale changes in the English language. It builds on the knowledge introduced in the first year.

History of English Language 

(20 credits)

This course introduces students to the historical development of the English Language. It explores the language of literary and non-literary texts in English, produced at various stages of its development, in order to study the linguistic processes underlying the history of the language and the society behind that language. It considers how different aspects of English, including vocabulary, spelling and morphology, have been affected by social changes such as invasion, culture and technology and the difficulties encountered when trying to explore the language use of past societies based on limited written evidence. Students will be instructed in the use of research tools, such as historical corpora and lexicographic resources, for the exploration, analysis and description of language from a historical perspective.

Discourse Analysis

(20 credits) 

This module is about examining both written and spoken discourse in detail. We will look at a variety of discourse analysis frameworks and the typical kinds of texts and/or stretches of spoken language that they are used to analyse. For example, we will explore Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and its application to news reporting (e.g. how does the writer create a certain ‘version’ of events through language) and Conversation Analysis and its application to casual, everyday conversations (e.g. how do speakers know and indicate to others when a new speaker can take the floor? And how do they coordinate with each other to produce a smooth transition?). Most of the seminars are based on practical analysis of texts and transcripts selected from a variety of domains, accompanied by a set of relevant readings.

Lexical Semantics

(20 credits) 

This module introduces students to word semantics, the study of word meanings and how they are related to each other (homonymy, antonymy, synonymy etc.). The module will cover such topics as reference, semantic relations, frames, polysemy, connotation, historical semantic change and the application of these concepts to lexicography. After introducing these basic concepts the module will review different theoretical approaches such as “amodal” theories of meaning (which views meanings as combinations of abstract symbols), versus cognitive semantics (which considers meaning in relation to perceptual experience, cognition, and world knowledge). Towards the end the module will move toward cutting-edge research in the domain of lexical semantics, introducing computational approaches (LSA, vector-space models) and experimental research on the idea that meaning amounts to perceptual simulation.

Shakespeare Module

Shakespeare: Elizabethan and Jacobean

(20 credits)

Shakespeare: Elizabethan and Jacobean will offer a powerful and pleasurable encounter with our most valued writer: Shakespeare.  The module is founded on close reading and experience of the plays as scripts and performances and on the chance to explore and analyse them as such. It seeks to equip students to think about and enjoy Shakespeare’s plays and poems for themselves. Shakespeare: Elizabethan and Jacobean will offer students the opportunity to read texts from across the whole span of Shakespeare’s writing career and will explore questions of genre, dramaturgy, poetic form, historical context and political and philosophical engagement.

Themes in Literature

Example optional modules may include:

The Gothic

(20 credits) 

This module will explore the afterlife of ‘the Gothic’ in literature over the last two centuries from texts such as Shelley’s Frankenstein to Egan’s The Keep. The module will consider the genre of the Gothic, as well as the tropes and conventions of the Gothic that are incorporated into or appropriated by a variety of other literary genres including science fiction, detective fiction, horror and romance. We will explore categories such as the ‘Urban Gothic’, the ‘Female Gothic’ and the ‘Southern Gothic’, as well as themes such as the uncanny, the double, the Gothic body and repression and the spectre of the past.

Tragedy

(20 credits)

Tragedy takes us to parts of human experience that other forms of artistic expression cannot reach. It deals with powerful and destructive forces beyond our control; it gives voice to things which otherwise remain silent; it disturbs and unsettles, yet asserts free will. It is dynamic and extraordinarily varied and a point of comparison with all other literary forms. This module explores the long history of tragedy, its variations and topical concerns, from the ancient world’s obsession with drama and theatre to modern iterations from around the globe. Tragedy was invented for performance in front of an audience and semester one bridges two golden eras of dramatic production: Classical Greece and Renaissance England. Semester two explores the redefinition of the tragic mode from the Romantics to the present day covering works by European, American, African and Asian writers and directors. With reference to primary literary texts and other philosophical considerations of the nature of tragedy, we will return to a series of central issues: How to define tragedy? Who gets depicted? What effect does tragedy have on its audience?  Does tragedy deal with universal or local concerns? What is the relation between tragedy on the stage and in other literary genres? How does the crafted form of artistic tragedy differ from the merely tragic?

Shakespeare's Sisters 

(20 credits) 

In Shakespeare’s Sisters we will study women’s writing across an extended historical period, from the medieval/early modern period to the late twentieth or twenty first centuries. We will read some of the major works of female-authored literature in the English language and will also consider some of the key theoretical and methodological issues specific to the category of women’s writing. Is there a canon of women’s writing and if so how can it be defined? Is there a tradition of women’s writing in English and if so when did it begin?  Is it either feasible or desirable to study women’s writing – in any period – in isolation from male-authored texts?

Rude Writing: Satire and its Targets

(20 credits) 

Rude Writing: Satire and its Targets offers the opportunity to study satiric texts across an extended historical period from the medieval period to the early nineteenth century and to investigate what is meant by satire. Satirists use wit and ridicule to expose vice and folly in order, supposedly, to reform faults and weaknesses, though motives of revenge and spite are often more likely. We will read some of the major works of satire and will consider some of the key theoretical and methodological issues specific to satire with the aim of understanding what satire is, what its targets are and the reasons for these and what means it uses to attack those targets. We will look at a variety of forms that satire takes which may include epistles, lampoons, epigrams, poetry, novels and parodies.

The Uses of Genre: Nefarious Plots, Cheap Thrills and the Search for Meaning

(20 credits)

Read by scholars with guilt if at all, ‘genre fiction’ – including science fiction, romance, fantasy and detective fiction – is often thought of as being unworthy of serious scholarly attention. Paradoxically, the genres with the most active readerships are easily dismissed as bad, popular or cheap. Yet it is increasingly being noticed that scrutiny of genre fiction may be able to supply historical or theoretical perspectives on culture which canonical literary fiction cannot. This module will introduce students to a cross-section of genres from the recent history of popular literature, organised by theme rather than in order of chronological appearance. Students will be exposed not only to a range of generic forms, but also to a new set of ways of theorising them. When we grab our airport reading what is happening? In what cultures does the reader of popular fiction participate? By what right are these fictions held to be lesser than their canonical contemporaries. Spaceships, elves, magnifying glasses and windswept clifftops – these and many others are the clichés of genre fiction, but what lies beneath them? What use might they have? And, most of all, how can we use them to think about our culture and ourselves?

Transatlantic Literary Relations

(20 credits) 

Atlantic Exchanges: This module explores the restless and productive dialogue and exchange that characterises transatlantic literary discourse. It will explore issues such as early expressions of American literary nationalism; travel writing by Europeans in America and Americans in Europe; the politics of transatlantic publication and republication and fictions that engage what Henry James termed “the international theme.” The module will draw on examples from the nineteenth to the twenty first century and range across forms and genres including novels, short stories, poetry and literary non-fiction. Students will develop a nuanced and critical understanding of the “Anglo-American literary tradition”, explore processes of exchange, miscommunication and appropriation and study the work of a range of writers that may include Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, Henry James, Edith Wharton, James Baldwin, Geoff Dyer and Jonathan Safran Foer. 

Atlantic Spaces: This module explores the ways in which the transatlantic is convenied and operates as a cultural space. Key themes and ideas covered will include expatriate writing and communities, the experience of diaspora and Paul Gilroy’s theorisation of the ‘Black Atlantic’ and ways in which culture and technology challenge and collapse the spatial divide of the Atlantic Ocean. The module will draw on a range of literary forms including novels, short stories, non-fiction and critical theory. Students will explore ways of thinking beyond “Anglo-American” models of Atlantic culture, engage theorisations of cultural and critical space and study the work of a range of writers that may include W. E. B. du Bois, Ernest Hemingway, Djuna Barnes, Graham Greene, Fred D’Aguiar and William Gibson.  

Histories of Literature

Example optional modules may include:

Popular Fiction before the Novel

(20 credits)

What were people reading before they could curl up with a novel? This module explores the antecedents of modern fiction, focusing on the ways in which stories were created, packaged and experienced by writers and readers of the past. With particular reference to narratives aimed at popular audiences, especially romances, topics investigated will include: reading and performance; stories and/in pictures; heroes, heroines, outlaws and villains; role models and celebrities; representations of interiority; adaptations; structure and suspense; fiction, truth and fact; best sellers; publishing and marketing fiction and gender and fiction.

Songs and Sonnets: English Poetry from Wyatt to Donne

(20 credits)

This module offers the opportunity to explore the work of some of England’s most celebrated poets, focusing upon their distinctive formal qualities as well as their precise literary, cultural and political contexts. Opening with early Tudor court poetry by poets such as Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the module then moves forward through work by archetypal Renaissance poets such as Edmund Spenser and Philip Sidney, female innovators like Isabella Whitney and Mary Sidney, significant later Elizabethan writers such as Christopher Marlowe and Walter Raleigh, ending with a selection of works by William Shakespeare and John Donne. Particular emphasis will be placed upon developments in poetic form and genre, the translation and adaptation of classical and later European writers, the transmission and reception of literary works, especially in the intersections of manuscript and print culture and upon the treatment of gender, history, politics and religious belief.

Epic Ambitions

(20 credits)

This module will be centred on a number of significant texts in the epic and mock-epic genres produced between the end of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth. Texts such as Spenser’s Faerie Queene, Milton’s Paradise Lost and Pope’s Rape of the Lock have been selected in order to illuminate the concept of intertextuality and to encourage students to explore ways in which new works of literature result from the imitation, transformation and subversion of genre conventions and existing literary models. The nominated texts will be studied as representative of the continuities and changes in literary culture that were taking place between c. 1590 and c. 1800 and will be used to illustrate generic, contextual and theoretical issues raised in lectures. The nominated texts will also be used to provide points of reference for work in seminars/workshops, but discussion in these sessions will also draw upon a range of related texts.

Stories of the Novel

(20 credits)

This module traces the major developments and transformations in the genre of prose fiction in the eighteenth century. By engaging with significant texts such as Daniel Defoe’s Moll Flanders (1721), Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrews (1742) and Frances Burney’s Evelina (1778) and encouraging students to observe the continuities and differences between such early-, mid- and late-century works, the module introduces students to influential critical accounts of the ‘rise of the novel’ in the eighteenth century. At the same time, by combining these diverse focal texts in seminars/workshops with extracts and examples from contemporaneous and contextual works and by drawing on a range of novelistic voices, both male and female, the module encourages students to challenge the simplicity of the ‘rise’ story of the novel and to develop a more complex understanding of the multiple shaping influences on prose fiction in this century, as well as the ability to analyse closely issues of form, style, gender and genre. Beginning with examples of earlier seventeenth-century prose fiction, the module ends by gesturing towards Gothic fiction and the work of Jane Austen, showing how eighteenth-century fiction has powerfully shaped – and continues to shape – modern conceptions of the novel. 

Writing the Restoration

(20 credits)

Writing the Restoration will engage with the poetry, drama and prose of one of the most vibrant and innovative periods of English literature. In 1660 the young Charles II was restored to the throne after 18 years of civil war and republican government. The return of the king was greeted enthusiastically by many of the leading writers of the period and was shortly followed by the re-opening of the theatres, which had been closed since 1642. For other writers, meanwhile, the Restoration was the greatest calamity of their adult lives – an event to which many were never truly reconciled. In this module we will explore writers’ contrasting reactions to the Restoration, examining how some took advantage of the new opportunities of their era, while others sought consolation elsewhere in religion, philosophy, family or sex. We will also consider how the changed circumstances of the Restoration enabled some people from historically disadvantaged groups – women; non-elite men – to engage with print, manuscript and theatrical culture.

Romantics and Romanticisms

(20 credits)

Spanning a half-century marked by violent revolutions and rapid social change, the Romantic era was an age of exceptional artistic energy, ambition and achievement. During the period gifted poets radically transformed the traditions of English verse and prose writers began to explore the full psychological and historical possibilities of the novel. This module will explore Romantic writing by reading the pioneering fiction of Jane Austen and Sir Walter Scott alongside wide-ranging selections from William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Blake, Lord Byron, Percy Shelley and John Keats: the ‘Big Six’ poets whose innovative and controversial views laid the foundations for modern conceptions of poetic genius. Alongside these writers, whose works have come retrospectively to define Romanticism, the course will explore some lesser-known classics of the period including popular writings by the radical essayist William Hazlitt, the labouring-class poet Robert Bloomfield and the novelist and sonneteer Charlotte Smith. By reading enduring masterworks in tandem with a selection of diverse intertexts and modern criticism, we will seek to recapture the fears, ideals and excitements that resonated through the period’s vibrant and rancorous print culture.

Victorian Literature

(20 credits)

This module offers students the opportunity to read widely and deeply in the literature of the Victorian period, engaging with the work of such canonical authors as Dickens, Gaskell, Eliot, the Brontës, Hardy, James, Tennyson, Barrett Browning and Hopkins, as well as studying cultural movements such as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and its circle and making the acquaintance of lesser known writers such as Edward FitzGerald and George Meredith. The main texts for each week will be supplemented by contemporary materials drawn from a wide range of literary genres: for example, journalism, nonsense writing, biography and autobiography, diaries and correspondence, essays on literature, the visual arts, politics, economics and the broader culture. The module will offer students a grounding in the key aesthetic, cultural, professional and material contexts for Victorian literature and will introduce a range of modern critical and theoretical approaches to this period.

Decadence and the Fin de Siecle

(20 credits) 

The literature of the later part of the nineteenth century was often characterised by the term ‘Decadent’: a rebellion against the moral purpose earlier seen to legitimate and underpin literature and literary study. This fascinating period sees a privileging of aesthetic, or artistic, value over moral value and the results include macabre modern fairy tales, philosophical writings on the role and purpose of art and literature, the importance of short, intricately-formed impressionistic poems seeking a heightened engagement with the world through extreme experiences and the breaking of taboos and the mediation of these concerns into the popular press and the twentieth century.  

Twenty-First-Century Literature

(20 credits) 

On this module we will consider whether the twenty first century has ushered in a new literary period. We will discuss whether we can distinguish literary concerns of the current century from those of the twentieth century and the ways in which literature may be registering new social and political formations. How does literature work and to whom is it speaking in an age of abundant communication and perpetual narratives of crisis? This module will introduce students to a range of fiction and theory since 2000, addressing topics that might include postmodernism, technology, globalisation, race, feminist and queer studies. The module will begin by considering new modes of story-telling and new media at the millennium and will move on to study texts in light of themes that might include sincerity and authenticity, eco-criticism and post and trans-humanism.

New World Orders? Literature after 1945

(20 credits)

The decades that followed the second world war saw radical realignments of the political and social ordering of the preceding years: memories of the war’s horror – including the particular atrocities of the Holocaust and the atom bomb – gave way to the paranoia of Cold War politics; the flowering of decolonisation further refigured the relations between nations, while the rise of liberationist ideals such as the Civil Rights and feminist movements restructured the distribution of rights and opportunities within national societies and the changing conditions of economic production and supply facilitated the emergence of a ‘consumer culture’ such as had never been seen before. In this module we look to trace the impact of such global shifts on Anglophone literature. We’ll examine a broad range of fiction, poetry and drama from the 1950s to the 1990s (which includes material some students may find offensive and/or distressing) to question how writers looked to represent these new political, social and cultural landscapes and what forms they developed to do so.