Professor Christopher Ring BSc MSc PhD

Professor in Psychology

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences

Ring-Chris

Contact details

Telephone +44 (0)121 414 4275

Fax +44 (0)121 414 4121

Email c.m.ring@bham.ac.uk

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences
University of Birmingham
Edgbaston
Birmingham
B15 2TT
United Kingdom

About

Professor Christopher Ring is a professor of psychology and has enjoyed working in the school of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences since 1995. He has published over 120 research articles, won grants from research councils, charities and industry, collaborated with experts from many other countries, and supervised 21 doctoral students who are now working at universities around the world. He teaches a popular third year module concerning the psychophysiology of sport and exercise. His research interests are broad, and include the emotion-performance relationship in novices and experts, aggression in sport, and the effects of stress on vaccination as well as the effects of vaccination on stress. In his spare time, he thinks up ways of how he can become the best golfer he can be.

Qualifications

BSc (Hull, UK), MSc, PhD (Stony Brook, USA)

Biography

Christopher studied psychology at the University of Hull, graduating with a first class degree in 1987. He then studied psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook under the supervision of Jasper Brener, completing his doctorate in cardiac psychophysics in 1993. This was followed by a post-doctoral fellowship in respiratory psychophysiology at Ohio University. In 1995, he joined the School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Birmingham.

Research

- Behavioral Adjuvants to Vaccination
- Interoception
- Psychophysiology of Competition and Choking
- Social Neuroscience of Morality in Sport
- Sensorimotor Function

He is currently conducting studies in the following research topics: role of baroreceptors on nociception and pain; sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in hypertension, effects of exercise and mental stress on the immune response to vaccination, choking during sporting competition, and the social neuroscience of morality in sport.

Publications

2013

Vine, S.J., Moore, L.J., Cooke, A., Ring, C., Wilson, M.R. (2013). Quiet eye training: a means to implicit motor learning. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 44, 367-386.

Long, J.E., Ring, C., Bosch, J.A., Eves, F.F., Drayson, M.T. & Burns, V.E. (2013). A lifestyle physical activity intervention and the antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination in women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75, 774-778.

Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I.D., Sagar, S.S. & Ring, C. (2013). Bracketed morality revisited: How do athletes behave in two contexts? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 35, 449-463.

Dewar, A.J., Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2013). The effects of achievement goals on emotions and performance in a competitive agility task. Sport, Exercise & Performance Psychology, 2, 250-264.

Ring, C., Kavussanu, M., & Willoughby, A.R. (2013). Emotional modulation of pain-related evoked potentials. Biological Psychology, 93, 373-376.

Stanger, N., Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I.D., & Ring, C. (2013). The influence of moral disengagement and negative emotion on the regulation of antisocial behaviour. Sport, Exercise & Performance Psychology, 2, 117-129.

Paine, N.J., Ring, C., Aldred, S. Bosch, J.A., Wadley, A.J., & Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S. (2013). Eccentric-exercise induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 30, 133-142.

Paine, N.J., Ring, C., Bosch, J.A., Drayson, M.T., & Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S. (2013). The time course of the inflammatory response to the Salmonella typhi vaccination. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 30, 73-79.

Quelhas Martins, A., Kavussanu, M., Willoughby, A.R. & Ring, C. (2013). Moderate intensity exercise facilitates working memory. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14, 323-328.
Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., & Ring, C. (2013). The effects of individual and team competitions on performance, emotions and effort. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 132-143.

Paine, N.J., Ring, C., Bosch, J.A., McIntyre, D.B. & Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S. (in press). The effect of acute mental stress on limb vasodilation is unrelated to total peripheral resistance. Psychophysiology, 50, 680-690.

Plourde, A., Lavoie, K.L., Ouellet, K., Carroll, D., Ring, C. & Bacon, S.L. (2013). Hemodynamic haemostatic, and endothelial reactions to acute psychological stress in depressed patients following coronary angiography.  Psychophysiology, 50, 790-798.

2012

Van der Pol, P., Kavussanu, M. & Ring, C. (2012). The effects of training and competition on achievement motivation and performance in a golf-putting task. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 787-807.

Kavussanu, M., Willoughby, A.R. & Ring, C. (2012). Moral identity and emotion in athletes: Physiological responses during affective picture viewing. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 695-714.

Stanger, N., Kavussanu, M., & Willoughby, A.R. & Ring, C. (2012). Psychophysiological responses to sport-specific affective images: A study of morality and emotion in athletes. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 13, 840-848.

Moore, L., Vine, S., Cooke, A., Ring, C. & Wilson, M. (2012). Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under pressure: The roles of response programming and external attention. Psychophysiology, 49, 1005-1015.

Stanger, N., Kavussanu, M. & Ring, C. (2012). Put yourself in their boots: Effects of priming empathy on emotion and aggression. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 208-222.

Long, J.E., Ring, C., Drayson, M.T., Bosch, J.A., Campbell, J.P., Bhabra, J., Browne, D., Dawson, J., Harding, S., Lau, J. & Burns, V.E. (2012).  Vaccination response following aerobic exercise: Can a brisk walk enhance antibody response to pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations? Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 26, 680-687.

Messerotti Benvenuti, S., Ring, C., Palomba, D., Baldanzi, F. & Zanatta, P. (2012). Cortical and autonomic responses to noxious stimulation during anaesthesia in cardiac surgery patients are moderated by pre-anaesthetic blood pressure levels. Psychophysiology, 49, 697-703.

Van der Pol, P., Kavussanu, M. & Ring, C. (2012). Goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and motivational outcomes in football: A comparison between training and competition contexts. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 13, 491-499.

2011

Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., Boardley, I.D. & Ring, C. (2011). Effects of competitive pressure on expert performance: psychological, physiological and kinematic mechanisms. Psychophysiology, 48, 1146-1156.

Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D., & Ring, C. (2011). Effects of intergroup competition on endurance performance: The roles of enjoyment, engagement, effort and anxiety. Biological Psychology, 86, 370-378.

2010

Cooke, A., Kavussanu, M., McIntyre, D. & Ring, C. (2010). Psychological, muscular
and kinematic factors mediate performance under pressure in sport. Psychophysiology, 47, 1109-1118.

Edwards, K.E., Campbell, J.P.,  Ring, C., Drayson, M.T., Bosch, J.A., Downes, C., Long, J.E., Lumb, J.A., Merry, A., Paine, N.J. & Burns, V.E. (2010).  Exercise intensity does not influence the efficacy of eccentric exercise as a behavioural adjuvant to vaccination. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 24, 623-630.

Campbell, J.P.,  Edwards, K.E., Ring, C., Drayson, M.T., Bosch, J.A., Inskip, A., Long, J.E., Pulsford, D. & Burns, V.E. (2010). The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 24, 236-242.

Edwards, L., Ring, C., McIntyre, D., Winer, J.B. & Martin, U. (2010). Effects of hypertension on short latency human somatosensory-evoked potentials. Psychophysiology, 47, 323-331.

2009

Quelhas Martins, A., Ring, C., McIntyre, D., Edwards, L. & Martin, U. (2009). Effects of unpredictable stimulation on pain and nociception across the cardiac cycle. Pain, 147, 84-90.

Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J., Ring, C., Carroll, D., McIntyre, D. & Brown, M.D. (2009). Hemoconcentration during a prolonged stress task: Associations with hemodynamic reactivity and microvascular permeability. Biological Psychology, 82, 260-266.

Kavussanu, M., Morris, R. L. & Ring, C. (2009). Effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment and practice of a novel motor task. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 1281-1292.

Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S., Carroll, D. & Ring, C. (2009). Mental stress-induced haemoconcentration in women: Effects of menstrual cycle phase. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 805-816.

Ring, C., Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S. & Kavussanu, M. (2009). Effects of sex, phase of the menstrual cycle and gonadal hormones on pain in healthy humans. Biological Psychology, 81, 189-191.

Edwards, L., Ring, C., McIntyre, D., Winer, J.B. & Martin, U. (2009). Sensory detection thresholds are modulated across the cardiac cycle: Evidence that cutaneous sensibility is greatest for systolic stimulation. Psychophysiology, 46, 252-256

Kavussanu, M., Stamp, R., Slade, G. & Ring, C. (2009). Observed prosocial and antisocial behaviors in male and female soccer players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 72-76.

2008

McIntyre, D., Kavussanu, M. & Ring, C. (2008). Effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor activation on the upper limb nociceptive flexion reflex and electrocutaneous pain in humans. Pain, 137, 550-555.

Edwards, L., Inui, K., Ring, C., Wang, X. & Kakigi, R. (2008). Pain-related evoked potentials are modulated across the cardiac cycle. Pain, 137, 488-494.

Ring, C., Edwards, L. & Kavussanu, M. (2008). Effects of isometric exercise on pain are mediated by blood pressure. Biological Psychology, 78, 123-128.

Burns, V.E., Edwards, K.E., Ring, C., Drayson, M. &. Carroll, D. (2008). Complement cascade activation following an acute psychological stress task. Psychosomatic Medicine. 70, 387-396.

Edwards, L., Ring, C., France, C.R., McIntyre, D., & Martin, U. (2008). Effects of opioid blockade on nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds and nociceptive responding in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 69, 96-100.

Edwards, K.E., Burns, V.E., Adkins, A.E., Carroll, D., Drayson, M. & Ring, C. (2008). Meningococcal A vaccination response is enhanced by acute stress in men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 147-151.

McIntyre, D., Ring, C., Edwards, L. & Carroll, D. (2008). Simple reaction time as a function of the phase of the cardiac cycle in young adults at risk for hypertension. Psychophysiology, 45, 333-336.

Ring, C., Patterson, S.M., Bacon, S.L., Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S., Willemsen, G. & Carroll, D. (2008). Reliability of hematocrit during rest and stress in healthy adults. Biological Psychology, 77, 63-68.

Ring, C., France, C., al'Absi, M., Edwards, L., McIntyre, D., Carroll, D. & Martin, U. (2008). Effects of naltrexone on electrocutaneous pain in patients with hypertension compared to normotensive individuals. Biological Psychology, 77, 191-196.

Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S., Kitas, G.D., Carroll, D. & Ring, C. (2008). Increase in systemic vascular resistance during acute mental stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with high grade systemic inflammation. Biological Psychology, 77, 106-110.

Edwards, L., Ring, C., McIntyre, D., Winer, J.B., & Martin, U. (2008). Cutaneous sensibility and peripheral nerve function in patients with unmedicated essential hypertension. Psychophysiology, 45, 141-147.  

Drew, R.C., McIntyre, D.B., Ring, C. & White, M.J. (2008). Local metabolite accumulation augments passive muscle stretch-induced modulation of carotid-cardiac but not carotid-vasomotor baroreflex sensitivity in man. Experimental Physiology, 93, 1044-1057.

Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I.D., Jutkiewicz, N., Vincent, S. & Ring, C. (2008). Coaching efficacy and coaching effectiveness: Examining their predictors and comparing coaches’ and athletes’ reports. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 383-404.

Boardley, I.D., Kavussanu, M. & Ring, C. (2008). Athletes’ perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcomes in rugby union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 269-287.

2007
Ring, C.,  Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S., McIntyre, D. & Kavussanu, M. (2007). Hypervolemic hyperalgesia in healthy young adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 449-454.

McIntyre, D., Ring, C., Hamer, M. & Carroll, D. (2007). Effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor activation on simple and choice reaction times. Psychophysiology, 44, 874-879.

Edwards, L., Ring, C., France, C., al'Absi, M., McIntyre, D., Carroll, D. & Martin, U. (2007). Nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds and pain during rest and computer game play in patients with hypertension and individuals at risk for hypertension. Biological Psychology, 76, 72-82.

Edwards, K.E., Burns, V.E., Ring, C., Carroll, D. & Drayson, M. (2007). The acute stress-induced immunoenhancement hypothesis. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 35, 150-155.

De Boer, D., Ring, C., Wood, M., Ford, C., Jessney, N., McIntyre, D. & Carroll, D. (2007). Time course and mechanisms of mental stress-induced changes and their recovery: hematocrit, colloid osmotic pressure, whole blood viscosity, coagulation times and hemodynamic activity. Psychophysiology, 44, 639-649.

Edwards, L., Ring, C., McIntyre, D., Carroll, D. & Martin, U. (2007). Psychomotor speed in hypertension: Effects of reaction time components, stimulus modality, and phase of the cardiac cycle. Psychophysiology, 44, 459-468.

France, C.R., al’Absi, M., Ring, C., France, J.L., Harju, A., Wittmers, L.E. (2007). Nociceptive flexion reflex and pain rating responses during endogenous opiate blockade in healthy young adults. Biological Psychology, 75, 95-100.

Ring, C., France, C.R., al'Absi, M., Beesley, L., Edwards, L., McIntyre, D., Carroll, D. & Martin, U. (2007). Effects of opioid blockade with naltrexone and distraction on cold and ischemic pain in hypertension. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 59-68.

De Boer, D., Ring, C., Curlett, A.C., Ridley, M. & Carroll, D. (2007). Mental stress-induced hemoconcentration and its recovery: A controlled study of time course and mechanisms.
Psychophysiology, 44, 161-169.

Edwards, K.E., Burns, V.E., Allen, L.M., McPhee, J.S., Bosch, J.A., Carroll, D., Drayson, M. & Ring, C. (2007). Eccentric exercise as an adjuvant to influenza vaccination in humans. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 21, 209-217.

Psychophysiology, 44, 161-169.

Edwards, L., Ring, C., McIntyre, D., Carroll, D, Clarke, R., Webb, O. & Martin, U. (2006). Increases in arousal are associated with reductions in the human nociceptive flexion reflex threshold and pain ratings: Evidence for dissociation between nociception and pain. Journal of Psychophysiology, 20, 259-266.

McIntyre, D., Edwards, L., Ring, C., Parvin, B. & Carroll, D. (2006). Systolic inhibition of nociceptive responding is moderated by arousal. Psychophysiology, 43, 314-319.

Edwards, K.E., Burns, V.E., Ring, C. & Carroll, D. (2006). Individual differences in the interleukin-6 response to maximal and submaximal exercise tasks. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24, 855-862.

De Boer, D., Ring, C. & Carroll, D. (2006). Time course and mechanisms of hemoconcentration in response to mental stress. Biological Psychology, 72, 318-324.

Phillips, A.C., Carroll, D., Burns, V.E., Ring, C., Macleod, J. & Drayson, M. (2006). Bereavement and marriage are associated with antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 20, 279-289.

Edwards, K.E., Burns, V.E., Ring, C. & Carroll, D. (2006). Sex differences in the interleukin-6 response to acute psychological stress. Biological Psychology, 71, 236-239.

Edwards, K.E., Burns, V.E., Reynolds, T., Carroll, D., Drayson, M. & Ring, C. (2006). Acute stress exposure prior to influenza vaccination enhances antibody response in women. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 20, 159-168.

Bacon S.L., Ring, C., Saw Hee F.L., Lip, G.Y.H., Blann, A.D., Lavoie, K.L., & Carroll, D. (2006). Hemodynamic, hemostatic, and endothelial reactions to psychological and physical stress in coronary artery disease patients. Biological Psychology, 71, 162-170.

Carroll, D., Davey Smith, G., Phillips, A.C., Ring, C. & West, P. (2006). Birth-weight, adult blood pressure, and blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 144-145.

France, C.R., Al�Absi, M., Ring, C., France, J., Brose, J., Spaeth, D., Harju, A., Nordehn, G., & Wittmers, L.E. (2005). Assessment of opiate modulation of pain and nociceptive responding in young adults with a parental history of hypertension. Biological Psychology, 70, 168-174.

Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S., Ring, C., Carroll, D. & Kitas, G.D. (2005). Increased C reactive protein in response to acute stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 64, 1299-1304.

Carroll, D., Phillips, A.C., Ring, C., Der, G. & Hunt, K. (2005). Life events and haemodynamic reactions to acute mental stress in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Psychophysiology, 42, 269-276.

Ring, C., Carroll, D., Hoving, J., Ormerod, J., Harrison, L.K., & Drayson, M. (2005). Effects of competition, exercise, and mental stress on secretory immunity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 501-508.

Phillips, A.C., Burns, V.E., Carroll, D., Ring, C., & Drayson, M. (2005). The association between life events, social support and antibody status following thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations in healthy young adults. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 19, 325-333.

Phillips, A.C., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Sweeting, H. & West, P. (2005). Life events and acute cardiovascular reactions to mental stress: A cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 384-392.

Lane, D., Ring, C., Lip, G.Y.H., & Carroll, D. (2005). Depression, indirect clinical markers of cardiac disease severity and mortality following myocardial infarction. Heart, 91, 531-532.

Burns, V.E., Ring, C. & Carroll, D. (2005). Factors influencing influenza vaccination uptake in an elderly, community-based sample. Vaccine, 23, 3604-3608.

Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S., Thrall, D., Wasche, D., Carroll, D. & Ring, C. (2005). The influence of hydration status on mental and postural stress-induced hemoconcentration. Psychophysiology, 42, 98-107.

Al�Absi, M., France, C.R., Ring, C., France, J., Harju, A., McIntyre, D., & Wittmers, L.E. (2005). Nociception and baroreceptor stimulation in hypertension-prone men and women. Psychophysiology, 42, 83-91.

D Lane, D Carroll, CM Ring, DG Beevers, GYH Lip. 2001. Mortaility and quality-of-life twelve months after myocardial infarction: Effects of depression and anxiety, Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 221-230.

Lane, D., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Beevers, D.G., & Lip, G.Y.H. (2000). Effects of depression and anxiety on mortality and quality-of-life four months after myocardial infarction. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49, 229-238.

Lane, D., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Beevers, D.G., & Lip, G.Y.H. (2000). Do depression and anxiety predict recurrent coronary events twelve months after myocardial infarction? Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 97, 739-744.

Ring, C., Harrison, L.K., Winzer, A., Carroll, D., Drayson, M., & Kendall, M. (2000). Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular activity during mental arithmetic, cold pressor and exercise: Effects of alpha-adrenergic blockade. Psychophysiology, 37, 634-643.

Carroll, D., Ring, C., Suter, M., & Willemsen, G. (2000). The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology, 150, 220-225.

Jameson, C., & Ring, C. (2000). Contributions of local and central sensations to the perception of exertion during cycling: Effects of work rate and cadence. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 291-298.

Willemsen, G., Ring, C., McKeever, S., & Carroll, D. (2000). Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular activity during mental arithmetic: Effects of task difficulty and task order. Biological Psychology, 52, 127-141.

Harrison, L.K., Carroll, D., Burns, V.E., Corkill, A.R., Harrison, C.M., Ring, C., & Drayson, M. (2000). Cardiovascular and secretory immunoglobulin A reactions to humorous, exciting, and didatic film presentations. Biological Psychology, 52, 113-126.

Ring, C., Carroll, D., Willemsen, G., Cooke, J., Ferraro, A. & Drayson, M. (1999). Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular activity during mental arithmetic and paced breathing. Psychophysiology, 36, 602-609.

Winzer, A., Ring, C., Carroll, D., Willemsen, G., Drayson, M. & Kendall, M. (1999). Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular activity during mental arithmetic, cold pressor and exercise: Effects of beta-adrenergic blockade. Psychophysiology, 36, 591-601.

Barsky, A.J., Ahern, D.K., Brener, J., Surman, O.S., Ring, C. & Dec, G.W. (1998). Palpitations and cardiac awareness after heart transplantation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 557-562.

Willemsen, G., Ring, C., Carroll, D., Evans, P., Clow, A. & Hucklebridge, F. (1998). Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular reactions to mental arithmetic and cold pressor. Psychophysiology, 35, 252-259.

Schneider, T.R., Ring, C. & Katkin, E.S. (1998). A test of the validity of the method of constant stimuli as an index of heartbeat detection. Psychophysiology, 35, 86-89.

Clow, A., Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Shrimpton, J., Willemsen, G. & Evans, P. (1998). Endogenous monoamine oxidase A inhibitory activity (tribulin), measured in saliva, is related to cardiovascular reactivity in normal individuals. Journal of Neural Transmission, 52 (Suppl.), 71-77.

Willemsen, G., Petchot-Bacque, J.-P., Alleaume. B., Suter, M., Ring, C. & Carroll, D. (1997). A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium and magnesium on psychological well-being and cardiovascular reactions to stress in healthy young male volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Research, 9, 175-184.

Knapp, K., Ring, C., & Brener, J. (1997). Sensitivity to mechanical stimuli and the role of general sensory and perceptual processes in heartbeat detection. Psychophysiology, 34, 467-473.

Ring, C., & Brener, J. (1996). Influence of beliefs about heart rate and actual heart rate on heart beat counting. Psychophysiology, 33, 541-546.

Carroll, D., Ring, C., Shrimpton, J., Evans, P., Willemsen, G. & Hucklebridge, F. (1996). Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular responses to acute psychological challenge. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 3, 266-279.

Ring, C., Liu, X. & Brener, J. (1994). Cardiac stimulus intensity and heartbeat detection: Effects of tilt-induced changes in stroke volume. Psychophysiology, 31, 553-564.

Brener, J., Ring, C. & Liu, X. (1994). Effects of data limitations on heartbeat detection in the method of constant stimuli. Psychophysiology, 31, 309-312.

Brener, J., Liu, X. & Ring, C. (1993). A method of constant stimuli for heart beat detection: Comparison with the Brener-Kluvitse and Whitehead methods. Psychophysiology, 30, 657-665.

Ring, C. & Brener, J. (1992). The temporal locations of heart beat sensations. Psychophysiology, 29, 535-545.

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