P.G. Nunn, Victorian Women Artists (London, 1987), p.2.
 For further exploration of Clayton’s work, see P.G. Nunn, ‘Reviews and Re-views, English Female Artists, by Ellen Creathorne Clayton’, Woman’s Art Journal, 3.2 (1982), pp.57–60.
 Ellen C. Clayton, English Female Artists (London, 1876), p.7.
 See, for example, W. Mercer, ‘Sophie Anderson’, Notes and Queries (12 September 1914), p.214.
 L. Villari, ‘Capri’, English Illustrated Magazine (November 1887), pp.88–9.
 Charlotte Yeldham, ‘Anderson, Sophia (1823-1903)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004), online edition, January 2016.
 Deborah Cherry and Janice Helland, ‘Local places/global space: new narratives of women’s art in the nineteenth century’, in D. Cherry and J. Helland (eds), Local/Global. Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century (Aldershot, 2006), p.11. See also J. Pomeroy (ed), Intrepid Women. Victorian Artists Travel (Aldershot, 2005).
 Edwin Cerio, ‘The Reformers’, London Mercury, 11 (1924), p.242.
 Ibid, pp.244–5.
 For further discussion see Deborah Cherry, Painting Women: Victorian Women Artists (London, 1993), pp.12–13.
 Cherry, Painting Women, pp.53–64; Nunn, Victorian Women Artists, pp.44–53; Alison Smith, The Victorian Nude. Sexuality, morality and art (Manchester, 1996), pp.37–44.
 Cherry, Painting Women, p.98. On London’s art market, see P. Fletcher and A. Helmreich (eds), The Rise of the Modern Art Market in London, 1850–1939 (Manchester, 2011).
 Cherry, Painting Women, pp.65–77.
 For a recent discussion and extensive bibliography, see Patricia de Montfort and Robyne Erica Calvert (co-ordinators), ‘Still Invisible?’, British Art Studies, 2 (2016), accessed 14 December 2017.  See M. Taylor and M. Wolff, The Victorians Since 1901: Histories, Representations, and Revisions (Manchester, 2004).
 For an overview, see D. Peters Corbett and L. Perry, ‘Introduction’, in D. Peters Corbett and L. Perry (eds), English Art 1860–1914. Modern Artists and Identity (New Brunswick NJ, 2001), pp.1–12.
 For a recent art critical example, see Jonathan Jones, ‘Reflections: Van Eyck and the Pre-Raphaelites review – not worth a look’, Guardian (28 September 2017), accessed 14 December 2017.
 Caroline Arscott, ‘Sentimentality in Victorian Paintings’, in G. Waterfield (ed), Art for the People. Culture in the Slums of Late Victorian Britain (London, 1994), p.72.
 See J. Sellars, Women’s Works (Liverpool, National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside: 1988), p.1.
 Amy Woodson-Boulton, Transformative Beauty. Art Museums in Industrial Britain (Stanford CA, 2012), pp.82–107.
 Cherry, Painting Women, pp.120–1.
 Ibid, pp.126–7.
 Cited in Maria Quirk, ‘Portraiture and Patronage: Women, Reputation, and the Business of Selling Art, 1880–1914’, Visual Culture in Britain, 17.2 (2016), p.189. I am grateful to Zoë Thomas for this reference.
 ‘Birmingham Royal Society of Artists’, Birmingham Daily Post (29 August 1872), p.5; ‘Birmingham Royal Society of Artists’, Birmingham Daily Post (13 December 1871), p.6.
 Sotheby’s London, ‘Lot 96’, A Great British Collection: The pictures collected by Sir David and Lady Scott, auction catalogue (19 November 2008).
 Anne Higonnet, Pictures of Innocence. The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood (London, 1998), pp.51–71.
 Ibid, pp.23–8; Robert M. Polhemus, ‘John Millais’s Children: Faith, Erotics, and The Woodsman’s Daughter,’ Victorian Studies, 7.3 (1994), pp.433–50.
 Higonnet, Pictures of Innnocence, pp.28–9.
 Ibid, p.33.
 ‘Leicester Corporation Permanent Art Gallery’, Leicester Chronicle (1 December 1894), p.12; Ronald Moore, ‘Artist due for a revival’, Leicester Mercury (July 1972); Letter from R. M. Paisey to P. Gerrish Nunn (21 September 1982), New Walk Museum and Art Gallery, Leicester, object file for Sophie Anderson, Neapolitan Child.
 Exhibition dates based on a list compiled from contemporary catalogues of exhibitions in London, Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool by Pamela Gerrish Nunn, object file for Sophie Anderson, Neapolitan Child, New Walk Museum and Art Gallery (hereafter Nunn, List).
 See Gabriella Gribaudi ‘Images of the south - the "Mezzogiorno" as seen by insiders and outsiders’ in R. Lumley and J. Morris (eds), New History of the Italian South. The Mezzogiorno Revisited (Exeter, 1997).
 Charlotte Yeldham, Women Artists in Nineteenth-Century France and England, 1 (New York and London, 1984), p.116.
 Cerio, ‘The Reformers’, pp.243–4.
 Sotheby’s London, ‘Lot 57’, British and Continental Paintings, auction catalogue (3 October 2007).
 As Smith points out, however, when some later-Victorian female artists painted nude figures, they were never regarded as serious intellectual endeavours like those of their male counterparts. Smith, Victorian Nude, pp.192–6.
 An image of this work is available on Bridgeman Images (BAL11024).
 Nunn, List.
 Yeldham, Women Artists, I, p.173.
 Wolverhampton Art Gallery, object file for Sophie Anderson, The Song.
 Tim Barringer, ‘Art, Music, and the Emotions in the Aesthetic Movement’, 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 23 (2016) DOI: accessed 18 December 2017.
 Griselda Pollock, ‘Modernity and the Spaces of Femininity’, in Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism, and Histories of Art (London and New York, 1988), p.87.
 For a general introduction, see Robert Irwin, The Arabian Nights: A Companion (London, 2003). On the scandalous sexualised vision of The Arabian Nights in the 1880s see Dane Kennedy, ‘“Captain Burton's Oriental Muck Heap”: The Book of the Thousand Nights and the Uses of Orientalism’, Journal of British Studies, 39.3 (2000), pp.317–39. On The Arabian Nights, childhood and domesticity, Melissa Dickson, ‘Jane Eyre's “Arabian Tales”: Reading and Remembering the Arabian Nights’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 18.2 (2013), pp.198–212.
 E. Prettejohn, The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites (London, 2000), p.84.
 E. Said, Orientalism (London, 1978).
 See Linda Nochlin, ‘The Imaginary Orient’, in L. Nochlin, The Politics of Vision. Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society (Boulder CO, 1989), pp.33–59; Mary Roberts, ‘Contested Terrains: Women Orientalists and the Colonial Harem’, in Mary Roberts and Jill Beaulieu (eds), Orientalism's interlocutors: painting, architecture, photography (Durham NC, 2002), pp.179–203.
 Reina Lewis, Gendering Orientalism. Race, Femininity and Representation (London, 1996), p.179.
 These include: Scandal in the Harem (untraced, but engraved in fig.10), exhibited 1877 at the Pall Mall Gallery London, the Paris Salon, and the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists’; Zelica (untraced), exhibited 1881 at the Royal Academy and 1882 at Glasgow. Zelica is a tragic female character in Thomas Moore’s 1817 Orientalist poem Lalla Rookh. Exhibition dates based on Nunn, List and Roger Billcliffe (ed), The Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts. A Dictionary of Exhibitors, 1 (Glasgow, 1990), p.60. Undated Orientalist works In the Harem, Tunis, oil on canvas, 75.5 x 63 cm, which appears on the front cover of Lewis, Gendering Orientalism and as plate 27, and Toklihili: The Young Indian Princess, oil on canvas, 103 x 66 cm (Art Gallery of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada). On which see Alison McQueen, Nineteenth-Century Art: Highlights from the Tanenbaum Collection at the Art Gallery of Hamilton (London, 2015), p.43. Little is known about this painting or its subject; I suspect it might be Tchlikely (the dangerous), a study for which was exhibited at Liverpool (priced £63) in 1876 (Nunn, List), and at Glasgow in 1877 (priced £42; Billcliffe, Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts, p.60); a version simply listed as Tchlikely (the dangerous) is priced at £178.10 at the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists’ in the same year (presumably the finished version, to merit such a significant price difference) (Nunn, List). This is described as ‘An Eastern figure: a girl, wonderful in its intense realism’ in ‘Royal Birmingham Society of Artists’, Birmingham Daily Post (21 August 1876), p.5. The Water Carrier (before 1884) was another orientalist subject, exhibited at Wolverhampton in 1884. See note 67 below.
 Clayton, English Female Artists (1876) makes no mention of Anderson travelling, nor do any references to Anderson having travelled further than Capri appear in the press. Given the contemporary fascination with women artists who travelled outside of Europe, it seems unlikely that these sources would have omitted a reference to any Eastern expeditions undertaken by Anderson – and the ill health that motivated her relocation to Capri would very presumably have limited the possibilities of any such excursions.
 McQueen, Nineteenth-Century Art, p.43.
 Nelson Moe, View From Vesuvius : Italian Culture and the Southern Question (Berkeley, 2002).
 See Jan Marsh (ed) Black Victorians. Black People in British Art 1800-1900 (Manchester, 2005), cat.nos. 71, 72, 83, 99.
 Lewis, Gendering Orientalism, p.2.
 P. van der Veer, ‘Colonial Cosmpolitanism’, in S. Vertovec and R. Cohen (eds), Conceiving Cosmpolitanism. Theory, Context, and Practice (Oxford, 2002), pp.165–179.
 These are: Foundling Girls in the Chapel (undated), oil on canvas, 68 x 54.8 cm, Foundling Museum, London; Capri Girl with Flowers (undated), oil on canvas, 42 x 52 cm, Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, Bournemouth; Elaine (1870), oil on canvas, 158.4 x 240.7 cm, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
 S. J. Viccars, ‘The Leicester Corporation Art Gallery’, Magazine of Art (January 1893), p.12.
 A. Woodson-Boulton, ‘“Industry without Art is Brutality”: Aesthetic Ideology and Social Practice in Victorian Art Museums’, Journal of British Studies, 46.1 (2007), p.52.
 Ibid, p.49.
 Sellars, Women’s Works, p.2. When the Tate opened in 1897, 1.9% of its paintings were by women. See Alicia Foster, Tate Women Artists (London, 2004), p.7. The RA figures are compiled from the 1873 catalogue, The Exhibition of the Royal Academy, 1873 (London, 1873). Of 1112 oil paintings, eighty five were by women. There were no watercolours exhibited at the RA, but miniatures proved a comparable area for women artists, who made up 30% of the fifty two miniatures exhibited.
 Cherry, Painting Women, p.66.
 Sellars, Women’s Works, p.1.
 Ibid, p.15.
 J. W. Webster, letter to Mr Councillor Jones, Chairman of the Fine Art Gallery, 29 March 1886, Art Committee Minutes, Wolverhampton Archives and Local Studies, WOL-C-ART/1.
 For a broader examination of the role of nineteenth-century museums in fostering a local sense of industrial identity, see Kate Hill, ‘Manufactures, archaeology and bygones: making a sense of place in civic museums, 1850–1914’, International Journal of Regional and Local History, 8.1 (2013), pp.54–74.
 ‘Wolverhampton Exhibition. The Pictures (first notice)’, Birmingham Daily Post (9 June 1884), p.5.
 Charles Whibley, ‘Wolverhampton Municipal Art Gallery’, Magazine of Art (January 1888), pp.65–6.
 ‘Wolverhampton Exhibition. The Pictures (first notice)’, Birmingham Daily Post (9 June 1884), p.5.
 The Water-Carrier is described as ‘a characteristic specimen of Oriental beauty in a blue kerchief, with large crescent-shaped earrings, and a water-jar in her hand.’ See ‘Wolverhampton Exhibition. The Pictures (second article)’, Birmingham Daily Post (20 June 1884), p.7.
 Art Committee Minutes, Wolverhampton Archives and Local Studies, WOL-C-ART/1, p.184; p.198.
 Billcliffe, Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts, p.60; Liverpool Autumn Exhibition of Modern Pictures (Liverpool, 1881), p.38.
 This data is limited to oil paintings as I have compiled it from a search through acquisition dates for Wolverhampton Art Gallery on www.artuk.org. The others were James Webb, After the Wreck: On the French Coast (1870; purchased 1886); Charles Edward Johnson, Mountain and Flood, Sgurr nan Gillean, Skye (1876, purchased 1885); Henry Hadfield Cubley, On the Derwent, Derbyshire (1886; purchased 1886); Richard Redgrave, Babes in the Wood (1862, purchased 1886).
 K. Deepwell, Women Artists between the Wars: 'A Fair Field and no Favour' (Manchester, 2010). I am grateful to Zoë Thomas for this reference.
 ‘Autumn Fine Art Exhibition’, Leicester Chronicle (1 October 1881), p.3.
 Nunn, List; Billcliffe, Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts, p.60.
 ‘Sale of Pictures’, Birmingham Daily Post (10 March 1890), p.5.
 Cherry, Painting Women, pp.102–4.
 Two watercolours by Helen Allingham, Valewood Farm, and Old Cottages at Pinner were acquired from the Art Gallery Purchase Fund in 1891. See Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery database, accessed 18 December 2017.
 For a contemporary review of the 1886 East Room, see ‘The Grosvenor Gallery’, Illustrated London News (22 May 1886), p.555.
 Christopher Newall, The Grosvenor Gallery Exhibitions. Change and continuity in the Victorian Art World (Cambridge, 1995), p.24; p.48.
 Nunn, List.
 ‘Births, Deaths, Marriages and Obituaries’, Leicester Chronicle (10 January 1894), p.4.
 ‘The Fine Art Exhibition at the Museum Buildings’, Leicester Chronicle (23 September 1882), p.5.
 The other paintings selected from Snow’s collection were H. T. Dawson, The Thames (1874) (now labelled as The River Tamar); George Cole, Fittleworth Old Mill (1881).
 The Walsall Annual Red Book for 1893 (Walsall, 1892), p.105.
 Free Library and Art Gallery Committee minute book, Walsall Local History Centre, 150/1, pp.280–283.
 These are: George Cole, Horses with Timber Wagon (1880); Charles Waller Shayer, Brown Cow Standing (1826-1914); W. S. P. Henderson, Fair Day (1856); W. S. P. Henderson, Welsh Interior (1836-74); Charles Jones, Sheep (1875); James Clarke Waite, Penny Whistle (1863-1885); J. O. Banks, At the Fountain; William Shayer, White Cow Standing (1810-79).
 For a full list see ‘Sale of Pictures’, Birmingham Daily Post (10 March 1890), p.5.
 P. G. Nunn, ‘The Mid-Victorian Woman Artist, 1850-79’, unpublished PhD thesis, University College London (1982), pp.247–250. See also Quirk, ‘Portraiture and Patronage’.
 See Yeldham, ‘Sophia Anderson’.
 D. Macleod, Art and the Victorian Middle Class. Money and the Making of Cultural Identity (Cambridge, 1996).
 L. Davidoff and C. Hall, ‘The Architecture of Public and Private Life. English Middle-Class Society in a Provincial Town 1780-1850’, in D. Fraser and A. Sutcliffe (eds), The Pursuit of Urban History (London, 1983), p.326.
 Cherry and Helland (eds) Local/Global provides a recent feminist art historical re-evaluation of this debate.
 On the perceived social transgressions of the professional woman artist, see P. De Montfort, ‘Louise Jopling: A Gendered Reading of Late Nineteenth-Century Britain’, Woman's Art Journal, 34.2 (2013), pp.29–38.
 Woodson-Boulton, Transformative Beauty, pp.4–5; 54–68.
 John Swift, ‘Women and Art Education at Birmingham’s Art Schools, 1880-1920: Social Class, Opportunity and Aspiration’, Journal of Art and Design Education, 18.3 (1999), pp.317–27.
 Official Catalogue of the Fifth Exhibition of Pictures at the Art Gallery, Goodall Street, Walsall
(Walsall, 1896), cat.nos.102, 111, 141.