The texts

In phase 1 of the project, Globallit will focus on the texts featured in these bibliographies.

The Texts

These texts cover the range of ways in which literature has been understood and theorised in their respective literatures. In some cases, they dovetail with other disciplines, such as law and linguistics, but the focus of these texts is always on the uniqueness of the literary artefact and on literary ways of knowing. The intersections among the different traditions they represent - Arabic, Persian, and Turkic - becomes more apparent with every close reading.

Persian bibliography

Primary sources

  • Amir Dolatshah Samarqandi. Tazkirat al-shu’ar[Memoirs of Poets] ed. Edward Brown. Leiden: Brill [1900]
  • ʻAbd al-Qāhir ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān Jurjānī. Kitāb Asrār al-balāgha [Secrets of Poetics] Translated from Arabic by Jalil Tajlil. Tehran: University of Tehran Press, 1361 [1982]
  • Āghā Moḥammad Hādī Motarjem (d.1120/1708 – 09). Anwār al-balāgha [Illuminations of Poetics] ed. Muḥammad ‘Ali Qolami. Markaz-i farhangi nashr-i qebleh, 1376 [1997]
  • Azad Bilgrami. Qazālānal-hend [The Indian deer] ed. Sirus Shamisa. Tehran: Ferdows, 1382 [2003]
  • Luṭf ʻAlī ibn Āqā Khān Āz̲ar Baygdilī. Ātishkadah-ʼi Āz̲ar: taz̲kirah-ʼi shuʻarā-yi Fārsīʹzabān tā ākhir-i qarn-i davāzdahum-i Hijrī [The Fire-Temple of Azar: Memoirs of Persian poets to the end of the twelfth century hijra] ed. Jaʻfar Shahīdī. Tehran: Muʼassasah-i nashr-i kitāb, 1337 [1958]
  • Maḥmūd Gāwān̲.  Manāẓir al-inshāʼ [Landscapes of composition] ed. Maʻṣūmah Maʻdanʹkan. Tehran: Farhangistān-i Zabān va adab-i Fārsī, 1381 [2002 or 2003]
  • Mīrzā Abū Ṭāleb. Bayān-e badīʿ [The discourse of ornamentation] ed. Maryam Roẓātiān. Qom: Bostan-i kitab-i Qom: 1381 [2002]. This is seventeenth century abridged translation of Taftāzāni’s Al-mutawwal [The Long Interpretation]
  • Mohammed ʿAwfi. Lobāb al-albāb [The Piths of Essences] ed. Edward Granville Browne and M M Qazvini. Leiden: Brill [1906]
  • Muḥammad ibn ʻUmar Rādūyānī; Kitab tarjuman al-balagha [The Translator of Poetics] ed. Ahmed Ateş. Istanbul: I. Horoz Basımevi, [1949]
  • Muḥammad ibn ʻUmar Rādūyānī;   Kitab tarjuman al-balagha [The Translator of Poetics] ed. Mohammad Javad Shari’at. Isfahan: Dozhanposht, 1386 [2007]
  • Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Ṭūsī. Kitāb-i asās al-iqtibās [Book of borrowings] ed. Modarres Razavi. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Tihrān, 1367 [1989]
  • Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī. Chahār Maqāla [Four Discourses] ed. Mohammad Mo'in, Originally edited by Mohammad Qazvinī. Tehran: Zawwār Bookshop [1955–57]
  • Rashīd al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Vaṭvāṭ. Ḥadāyiq al-siḥr fī daqāyiq al-shiʼr [Gardens of Magic in the Nuances of Poetry] ed. ʻAbbās Iqbāl. Tehran: Maṭbaʻah-i majlis, 1308 [1930]
  • Reẓā Qolīkhān Hedāyat. Madarij al-balaqa dar ‘ilm-i badi’ [Stages of poetics in the science of ornamentation] ed. Hamid Hasani Bahr. Tehran: Farhangestān-e zabān va adab-e farsi, 1384 [2005]
  • Reẓā Qolīkhān Hedāyat. Majmʻa al-fuṣḥā [Compendium of eloquence] (6 volumes). ed. Maẓāhir Muṣaffā. Tehran: Enteshārāt-e amīr kabīr, 1336 [1957]
  • Serāj-al-Dīn Akbarābādī Ārzū (1101–69/1689–1755). Mawhebat-e ʿoẓmā vaʿAṭīa-ye kobrā [The greater talent and the greater gift] ed. Sirous Shamisa. Tehran: Ferdows 1381 [2002]  
  • Shams-i Qays. Kitāb al-muʻjam fī maʻāyīr ashʻār al-ʻajam [Glossary of Persian poetic norms] ed. Muḥammad Qazvīnī. Tehran: Chāpkhānah-i Dānishgāh 1338 [1959]
  • Shams-i Qays. Kitāb al-muʻjam fī maʻāyīr ashʻār al-ʻajam [Glossary of Persian poetic norms] ed. Sirous Shamisa. Tehran: Ferdows 1388 [2008]
  • Sharaf al-Dīn Rāmī. Anīs al-ʻushshāq. [Company of lovers] ed. ʻAbbās Iqbāl Tehran: Anjuman-i Nashr-i Ās̲ār-i Irān, 1325 [1947]
  • Sharaf al-Dīn Rāmī. Ḥaqāyiq al-Ḥadāʼiq: ʻIlm-i badīʻ va ṣanāyiʻ shiʻrī dar zabān-i pārsī darī [Truths of Gardens: the science of ornamentation and the craft of poetry in the Dari language] ed. Mūḥammad kāẓim Imām. Tehran: University of Tehran Press, 1341 [1962]
  • Muḥammad Abdul-Ghani Khān. Armaghān āsefī. ed. Muḥammad Abdul-hamid Khān [The gift of Asefi] Agra: 1386 [2007]
  • Kamāl al-Din Hussain Vāez Kāshefī. Badā’ye’ al-afkr fi sanye’ al-ash’r [Novel ideas in the craft of poetry] ed. Mir Jalal al-Din Kazzazi. Tehran: Nashr-e markaz, 1369 [1990]
  • Muḥammad Ḥusayn Shams al-ʻUlamā-yi Garakanī.  ‘Abdaʻ al-badāyiʻ: jāmiʻʹtarīn kitāb dar ʻilm-i badīʻ-i Fārsī [The novel of novels: the greatest book on the science of ornamentation in Persian] ed. Ḥusayn Jaʻfarī. Tabriz: Aḥrār-i Tabrīz, 1377 [1999]
  • Najaf-qoli Mirza (Āqā Sardār). Dorre-i Najaf[Pearl of Najaf] ed. Ḥusayn Āhī. Tehran: publisher not identified, 1364 [1985]
  • Imam ʻAli Varasteh. Farhang-i mustalahāt al-shuʻarā [Dictionary of poetic devices] Tehran: Muʼassasah-i pazhoheshay-i farhangi, 1364 [1985]
  • Burhan al-Din Ata’ullah Maḥmoud Ḥusayni Nishapuri. Badāye’ al-fasā’ī[The Ornamentation of the Eloquent] ed. Rahim Musalmanian Qobadiani. Tehran: Bonyad-i mowqufat-i afshar, 1384 [2005]
  • Burhān al-Dīn al-Marghīnānī. Al-Mahasin fi'l-nazm wa-'l-nathr [The beauties of poetry and prose] ed. Mohammad Fesharaki. Isfahan: Chapkhane-i parvin esfahan. n.d.
  • ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad Tāj al-Ḥalāvī. Daqāʼiq al-shiʻr, ʻilm-i badīʻ va sanāyiʻ shiʻrī dar zabān-i Pārsī-i Darī [The Nuances of poetry, the science of ornamentation, and poetic devices in the Dari language] ed. Muḥammad Kāẓim Imām. Tehran: Dānishgāh-i Tihrān [1962]
  • Jalāl-al-Dīn Homāʾī. Yddsht-h-i ostd-i Allma Jalāl-al-Dīn Homāʾī darbre-i ma’ni va bayn [Memoirs of the teacher Jalāl-al-Dīn Homāʾī concerning [the devices] of literary meaning and discourse] ed. Mahdokht Banu Homa’i. Tehran: Homa, 1370 [1991]

Lithographs

  • Mīr Shams-al-Dīn Faqīr-e Dehlavī (1141–83/1728–69). Ḥadāʾeq al-balāḡha [Gardens of Poetics] Lucknow: 1887
  • ʿAlī-Akbar Nawāb Shīrāzī Besmel (1187–1263/1773–1846). Toḥfat al-safar le-nūr al-baṣar [Souvenir for the dear son]
  • Mollā Mahdī Narāghī (d. 1209/1794–95). Noḵbat al-bayān [The best of discourse]
  • ʿEṣām-al-Dīn Ebrāhīm Esferāʾenī. Resāla dar esteʿāra wa ḥaqīqat wa majāz [Treatise on metaphor, truth, and the imagination]

 Contemporary scholarship and textbooks

  • ‘Abd al-Ḥusayn Āq Owlā. Durar al-adab [Pearls of literature] Shiraz: 1334 [1955]
  • Mahmoud Neshat. Adāt-i tashbih dar zabān-i fārsi [The axis of comparison in Farsi] Tehran: publisher not identified, 1340 [1961]
  • Muḥammad Khalīl Rajāʼī, Maʻālim al-balāghah dar ʻilm-i maʻānī va bayān va badīʻ. [Studying poetics in sciences of meaning, discourse, and ornamentation] Shīrāz: Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Shīraz, 1340 [1961]
  • Badīʻ al-Zamān Forūzanfar, Sokhan va Sokhanvarān [Poetic Discourse and Poets] Tehran: Nashriāt-i komision-e ma’ārif, 1318 [1939]
  • Jalāl-al-Dīn Homāʾī. Fonūn-e balāḡat wa ṣenāʿat-e adabī. [The Arts of Rhetoric and the craft of literature] Tehran:  1354 [1975]
  • Muḥammad Riz̤ā Shafīʻī Kadkanī. Ṣuvar-i khayāl dar shiʻr-i Fārsī: taḥqīq-i intiqādī dar taṭavvur-i īmāzhʹhā-yi shiʻr-i Pārsī [The imagery in Persian poetry: critical study of the development of images in Persian poetry] Tehran: Āgah, 1383 [2004]
  • Muḥammad Pādshāh Shād. Farhang-i Ānandrāj [Dictionary of Ānandrāj] ed. Muḥammad Dabīr Siyāqī. Tehran: Kitābkhānah-i Khayyām, 1335-? [1956-1963]
  • Nasrollah Tagavi. Hanjr-i Goftr [Norms of discourse] Tehran: Chapkhane-i majlis, 1317 [1938]
  • Abū al-Qāsim Rādfar. Farhang-i balāghī-adabī: shāmili-i vāzhahʹhā, iṣṭilāḥāt, taʻbīrāt va mafāhīm [Glossary of literary and rhetorical terms] Tehran: Intishārāt-i Iṭṭilāʻāt, 1368 [1989]
  • ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn Zarrīnʹkūb. Shiʻr-i bī durūgh, shiʻr-i bī niqāb: baḥs̲ dar funūn-i shāʻirī ... rājiʻ bishiʻr-i qadīm va shiʻr-i imrūz. [Poetry without lies, poetry without a veil: a discussion of the art of ancient poetry and of poetry today] Tehran: Jāvīdān, 1363 [1984]
  • ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn Zarrīnʹkūb. Naqd-i adabī: justujū dar uṣūl va ravishhā va mabāḥis̲-i naqqādī bā bar'rasī dar tārīkh-i naqd va naqqādān [Literary criticism: a study of principles, methods and ideas in criticism] Tehran: Amīr Kabīr, 1361 [1982]
  • Mir Jalal al-Din Kazzazi. Zib shens sokhan-e prs [The Aesthetics of the Persian discourse] (3 volumes; bayan, badi’, ma’ani). Tehran: Nashr-i Markaz, 1368
  • Ḥusayn Muḥammad Shah Shahab Ansari. Kanz al-favā’id [Treasury of Virtues] Madras University, 1956
  • Sirous Shamisa. Naqd-i adabi [Literary criticism] Tehran: Ferdows, 1384 [2005]
  • Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Ṭūsī. Kitāb-i asās al-iqtibās [Foundation of adaptation] ed. Azizallah Alizadeh. Tehran: Ferdows, 1389 [2010]
  • Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Ṭūsī. Bāz-negāri-e kitāb-i asās al-iqtibās [Rewriting foundation of adaptation] ed. Mustafa Borujerdi. Tehran: Sazman-e chap va entesharat-e vezarat-e farhang va ershad-e eslami, 1380 [2001]
  • Behrouz Sarvatian. Shams-i Qays. Bāznevīsī va naghd-i kitāb al-muʻjam fī maʻāyīr ashʻār al-ʻajam ta’līf-i Shams-i Qays [Rewriting and criticizing Shams-i Qays’s glossary of Persian poetic norms] Tehran: Sabzan 1387 [2008]
  • Shams-i Qays. Dar ma’rifat-i she’r: guziday-i al-muʻjam fī maʻāyīr ashʻār al-ʻajam [In the wisdom of poetry: Selected glossary of Persian poetic norms] ed. Sirous Shamisa. Tehran: Sokhan 1374 [1995]
  • Mohsen Zaker-al-hussaini. Farhang-i Shams-i Qays, bargerefteh az al-muʻjam fī maʻāyīr ashʻār al-ʻajam [Dictionary of Shams-i Qays from his glossary of Persian poetic norms] Tehran: Farhangestan-i zaban va adab-i farsi 1379 [2000]
  • Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī. Az chahār maqāla [From Four articles] ed. Zabih-allah Safa. Tehran: Amir kabir, 1362 [1983]
  • ---. Bar-goziday-i chahār maqāla [Selections from Four articles] ed. Reza Izadi. Tehran: Eshraghi, 1368 [1989]
  • ---. Chahār Maqāla [Four Articles] ed. Sa’id Gharehbagloo, Reza Anzabi-nezhad, Originally edited by Mohammad Qazvinī. Tehran: Jami, 1380 [2006]
  • Gholam-hussain Rezanezhad Nooshin. Osul-i elm-i balagha dar zaban-i farsi [Principles of Persian rhetoric] Tehran: al-Zahra, 1367 [1988]
  • Sirous Shamisa. Nigah-i tazeh be badi’ [A fresh outlook on figures of speech] Tehran: Ferdows, 1381 [2002]
  • Sirous Shamisa. Bayan [Literary discourse] Tehran: Mitra, 1392 [2013]
  • Sirous Shamisa. Bayan va ma’āni [Literary discourse and meaning] Tehran: Ferdows, 1374 [1995]
  • Siyalkouti mal varaste. Javab -e shafi [A treatise in literary criticism] ed. Sirous Shamisa. Tehran: Allameh Tabataba’i University Press, 1383 [2004]
  • Sirous Shamisa. Ma’āni [Literary meaning] Tehran: Mitra, 1386 [2007]
  • Mohammad Fesharaki. “Ma’āni-e bayan-e farsi ba ravesh-e jadid” [Persian rhetoric: a new methodology] in Majmu’e maghalat-e charomin kogerey-e tahghighat-e irani. ed. Mohammad Hossein Eskandari. Shiraz: Pahlavi University Press, 1353 [1973], pp. 237–255

Turkik bibliography

Prepared by Ceyhun Arslan (Koç University)

  • Ahmet Cevdet Paşa, Belagat-i Osmaniye. Istanbul: Asaduriyan, AH 1307 (originally published in AH 1298)
  • Ali Ekrem [Bolayır]. Nazariyyat-ı Edebiyye Dersleri. Istanbul: s.n., AH 1333
  • Ferrard, Christopher. “The Development of an Ottoman Rhetoric up to 1882, Part I. The Medrese Tradition,” Osmanlı Araştırmaları vol. 3 (1982), pp. 165–88
  • Ferrard, Christopher. “The Development of an Ottoman Rhetoric up to 1882, Part II, Contributions from Outside the Medrese,” Osmanlı Araştırmaları vol. 4 (1984), pp. 19–34
  • [Dilmen], İbrahim Necmi. Tarih-i edebiyat dersleri. 2 vols. Istanbul: Matbaa-yı Amire, AH 1338
  • Ertürk, Nergis. Grammatology and Literary Modernity in Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011
  • Fazlıoğlu, İhsan. “Osmanlı Döneminde ‘Bilim’ Alanındaki Türkçe Telif ve Tercüme Eserlerinin Türkçe Oluş Nedenleri ve Bu Eserlerin Dil Bilincinin Oluşmasındaki Yeri ve Önemi.” Kutadugubilig Felsefe-Bilim Araştırmaları 3 (Mar. 2003): 151–184
  • [Kam], Ömer Ferid. Asar-ı Edebiyye Tetkikatı Dersleri. Ed. Halil Çeltik. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı, 1998. (Originally published in AH 1331–1332)
  • İbradılı Mehmed Şükrü. İlm-i Belagat. Dersaadet (Istanbul): Arif Efendi Matbaası, AH 1318
  • İsmail E. Erünsal. “Mu'idi'nin Miftahu't-Teşbih'i,” Osmanlı Araştırmaları vol. 7- 8 (1988), pp. 215–72
  • Kazım Yetiş. “Edebiyat Nazariyesi Sahasında Batı'ya Açılan İlk Kitap: Mebani'l- İnşa.” In Mehmet Kaplan'a Armağan. Istanbul: Dergâh Yayınları, 1984, pp. 306–16
  • Kazım Yetiş. “Tanzimat Sonrası Belagat ve Rhetorique Kitaplarımıza Fransız Rhetorique
  • Kitaplarının Tesirleri,” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, no. 56 (1988), pp. 93–99
  • Kazım Yetiş. “Tanzimat Sonrasında Kullanı an Bazı Yeni Edebi Istılahlar,” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, no. 52 (1988), pp. 197–202
  • Kazım Yetiş. Talim-i Edebiyyatın Rhetorique ve Edebiyat Nazariyatı Sahasında Getirdiği Yenilikler (Ph.D. dissertation, 1981), Türkiyat Enstitüsü, Tez, nr. 2259
  • [Köprülü], Mehmet Fuat. Malûmat-ı edebiyye. Istanbul: Kanaat Matbaası, 1914
  • Manastırlı Mehmet Rıfat. Mecami’ül edeb. Dersaadet [Istanbul]: Kasbar Matbaası AH 1308
  • Mehmet Abdurrahman. Belagat-ı Osmaniyye (tertib-i cedid). Dersaadet (Istanbul): Asır Kütüphanesi, AH 1309
  • Münif Paşa. İlm-i Belagat. La Rhetorique. İstanbul Belediye Kütüphanesi, Muallim Cevdet Kitapları, No. 219, vr. 32
  • Muslihuddin Mustafa Süruri. Bahrü’l Maarif, Topkapı Museum, Ms H. 659
  • Namık Kemal. “Lisan-i Osmaninin edebiyatı hakkında bazı mülahazat-ı şamildir,” Tasvir-I Efkar 434, 1283
  • Namık Kemal. Tahrib-i Harabat: Ziya Paşa merhumun Harabat ünvanlı eserini muahızdır. Istanbul: Matbaa-ı Ebüzziya, AH 1303
  • Paker, Saliha. “On the poetic practices of ‘a singularly uninventive people’ and the anxiety of Imitation: A Critical Re-appraisal in Terms of Translation, Creative mediation and Originality,’” In Tradition, Tension, and Translation in Turkey, eds. Şehnaz Tahir Gürçağlar, Saliha Paker, John Milton, pp. 27–52. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015
  • Rusçuklu M. Hayri. Belagat. İzmir: Aydın Vilâyet Matbaası AH 1308
  • Şemsettin Sami. “Şiir ve edebiyattaki teceddüd-i ahirimiz.” Sabah 3240, no. 16 Tesrin-i sani, 1898
  • Şemsettin Sami. Kamus-i Türki. Dersaadet [Istanbul]: İkdam Matbaası, AH 1317–18
  • Şemsettin Sami. Lisan. Istanbul: Mihran Matbaası, 1885
  • Şemsettin Sami. Süreli Yayınlarda Çıkmış Dil ve Edebiyat Yazıları. Edited by Yüksel Topaloğlu. Istanbul: Ötüken, 2012
  • Tahirü’l Mevlevi. Tedrisat-ı Edebiyyeden Nazım ve Eşkal-i Nazm. İstanbul: Kesit Yayınları, 2015 (first published in AH 1329)
  • Taşköprüzade, Mevzuatul ül-ulum. Dersaadet: Ahmet Cevdet AH 1335 (first published in AH 937)
  • Ziya Paşa. “Şiir ve inşa.” Hürriyet no. 11 (7 September 1868): pp. 4–7
  • Ziya Paşa. Harabat. Istanbul: Matbaa-ı Amire, AH 1291
  • Ziya Paşa. Mukaddime-yi Harabat. Istanbul: Matbaa-ı Ebüzziya, 1893

Arabic bibliography

Arabic Balāgha references

  • Abdul-Raof, Hussein. Arabic Rhetoric: A Pragmatic Analysis. Culture and Civilization in the Middle East. London: Routledge, 2006.
  • Abubakre, R. ’Deremi. Bayān in Arabic Rhetoric: An Analysis of the Components of the Core of Balāghah. Nigeria: R.D. Abubakre, 1989.
  • al-Jāḥiẓ, Kitāb al-Bayān wa-l-tabyīn. Ed. `Abd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn. 4 vols. Vol. 1. Cairo, 1948–49.
  • al-Jurjānī, `Abd al-Qāhir. Asrār al-balāgha. The mysteries of eloquence. Ed.  Helmut  Ritter.  Istanbul, 1954.
  • al-Jurjānī, Abd al-Qāhir. Dalā´il al-i`jāz. Ed. Maḥmūd Muḥammad Shākir. Cairo, 1984.
  • Allen, Merriam. “Rhetoric and the Islamic Tradition.” Today’s Speech 22, no. 1 (1974): 43-49.
  • al-Qazwini, Galal al-Din. al-talkhis fi ʻaloum al-balagha, Ed. Abd al-raHman al-barqouqy. Cairo: Dar alFikr al'Arabi, 1904.
  • al-zamakhshari, Asās. al-Balāghah, Ed. M1oḥamed Basel. Beirut: Dar al-koteb al-ʿalmiah, 1998. 
  • Bonebakker, S. A. “Aspects of the History of Literary Rhetoric and Poetics in Arabic Literature.” Viator 1 (1970): 75–95.
  • Grunebaum, G. E. Von. “The Aesthetic Foundation of Arabic Literature.” Comparative Literature 4, no. 4 (1952): 323–40.
  • Ibn al-Mu`tazz. Kitāb al-Badī`. Ed. Ignatius Kratchkovsy. London, 1935.
  • Marāghī, Aḥmad Muṣṭafá. ʻUlūm Al-Balāghah: Al-Bayān Wa Al-Ma`ānī Wa Al-Badī`. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmīyah, 1982.
  • Merriam, Allen H. “Rhetoric and the Islamic Tradition.” Communication Quarterly 22, no. 1 (1974): 43–9
  • Muhsin J. al-Musawi, “Arabic Rhetoric”, in Oxford Encyclopedia of Rhetoric, ed. Thomas O. Sloane (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001): 29–33
  • Nuwayrī, Muḥammad. ʻIlm al-kalām wa-al-naẓarīyah al-balāghīyah ʻinda al-ʻArab. Tunisia, 2001. 
  • Smyth, William. “Rhetoric and `Ilm al-Bālagha: Christianity and Islam.” Muslim World 82, nos. 3–4 (1992): 242–57.
  • Sultạ̄nī, Muḥammad ʻAlī. Maʻa Al-Balāghah Al-ʻArabīyah Fī Tārīkhihā. Damascus: Dā al-Maʼmūn lil-Turāth, 1979.
  • ʻUmarī, Muḥammad. Al-Balāghah Al-ʻArabīyah: Uṣūluhā Wa-Imtidādātuhā, al-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ, al-Maghrib. Beirut: Afrīqiyā al-Sharq, 1999.
  • Van Gelder, Geert Jan. “The Apposite Request: A small chapter in Persian and Arabic rhetoric.” Edebiyat N.S. 12:1 (2001): 1-13.
  • Wansbroug, J. (1968). Arabic rhetoric and Qur'anic exegesis. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 31(3), 469-485.
  • Zebiri, Kate. “Towards a Rhetorical Criticism of the Qur’an / نحو استخدام جديد للمنهج البلاغي في دراسة القرآن.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 5, no. 2 (2003): 95–120.

Arabic Khaṭābah references

  • al-`Askarī, Abū Hilāl. Kitāb al-Ṣinā`atayn, al-Khaṭābah wa-l-shi`r. Ed.  Mufīd  Qumayḥa.  Beirut, 1989.
  • al-Hawi, Iliya. Fann al-khaṭāba wa-taṭawwuruhā `indā al-`arab. Beirut, 1969
  • al-Kalā`ī, Abū l-Qāsim. Iḥkām ṣan`at al-kalām. Ed. Muḥammad. R. al-Dāya. Beirut, 1966.
  • al-Maktabi, Nazir Muhammad. Khaṣā´iṣ al-khuṭbah wa-l-khaṭīb. Beirut, 1998.
  • al-Nuss, Ihsan. al-Khaṭābah al-siyāsiyya fī `aṣr Banī Umāyya. Damascus, 1965.
  • Halldén, Philip. “What Is Arabic Rhetoric? Rethinking the History of Muslim Oratory, Art and Homiletics.” IJMES 37 (2005), 19–38.
  • Ibn al-`Aṭṭār. Kitāb Adab al-khaṭīb. Ed. M. b. Hussayn al-Sulaymānī. Beirut, 1996
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