Dr Alexander Orakhelashvili

Photo of Dr Alexander Orakhelashvili

Birmingham Law School

Contact details

Birmingham Law School
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT
United Kingdom

Dr Alexander Orakhelashvili has taught and researched public international law at four British universities over the past 18 years. His teaching also includes elements of criminal law and jurisprudence. He is a frequent speaker at international conferences and seminars on developments in public international law, and has given invited papers at the events and conferences held in UK, USA, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Japan. He has provided legal advice regarding public international law issues in litigation before English and American courts. In 2018 Routledge has published his 8th edition of Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law – one of the leading British textbooks of international law.


  • LLB (Tbilisi State University), 1997
  • LLM (Leiden), 2000
  • PhD (Cantab.), 2005


Dr Orakhelashvili obtained his first law degree from Tbilisi State University in 1997, his master’s degree from Leiden University in 2000 and his PhD from Cambridge University in 2005, and joined the School of Law in September 2009. Previously, he was Shaw Foundation Junior Research Fellow in Law at Jesus College, Oxford (2005-2008). He has taught and supervised in public international law and the armed conflicts law at the universities of Cambridge (2003-2004), London (2003-2005) and Oxford (2005-2008).



  • Public International Law (LLM)
  • International Dispute Resolution (LLB final year)
  • Law of International Organisations (LLM, module leader)
  • Theory of Criminal Law (LLM, module leader)
  • International Humanitarian Law (LLM, module leader)

Postgraduate supervision

Dr Orakhelashvili has supervised or is currently supervising doctoral students undertaking research in the following areas:

Aut dedere aut judicare as a customary rule
The UN member states and individuals sharing international responsibility for the serious violation of international law committed during peace support operations
Iran and Nuclear non-proliferation
John Austin’s theory of law

Find out more - our PhD Law  page has information about doctoral research at the University of Birmingham.


Dr Orakhelashvili’s research focuses on all areas of public international law. He is an author of Peremptory Norms in International Law (OMIL, OUP 2006, paperback 2008, 657 pages), which is the updated and expanded version of his doctorate defended at Cambridge University in 2004, and constitutes the first comprehensive study of the complex phenomenon of peremptory norms in the international legal system.

He has also authored The Interpretation of Acts and Rules in Public International Law (OMIL, OUP 2008, 620 pages), which is first and so far the only comprehensive work on interpretation encompassing not only international treaties but also other international legal acts such as unilateral declarations, reservations, Security Council resolutions and declarations accepting the International Court’s jurisdiction. Most recently he published the first ever comprehensive monograph on Collective Security (OUP, 2011), an original study of the operation of universal and regional security institutions and their dynamic mutual interaction. Dr Orakhelashvili has also contributed about 80 articles and chapters to leading journals, yearbooks and edited collections. His work has been repeatedly cited by judges in national and international courts, for instance in 2004 by Mance LJ (as he then was) in the Court of Appeal decision on Jones v Saudi Arabia, as well as the Australian High Court, European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights.

Other activities

  • Law School’s Library representative
  • Dr Orakhelashvili is a member of editorial boards of the Journal of the Use of Force in International Law and of Jus Gentium: A Journal of International Legal History.


Recent publications


Orakhelashvili, A 2020, International law and international politics: foundations of interdisciplinary analysis: research monograph. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., Cheltenham.

Orakhelashvili, A 2019, Domesticating Kelsen: Towards the Pure Theory of English Law. Elgar studies in legal theory, 1 edn, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., Cheltenham. <https://www.elgaronline.com/view/9781788111416.xml>

Orakhelashvili, A 2018, Akehurst's Modern Introduction to International LAw: 8th ed. 8th edn, Taylor & Francis, UK.


Orakhelashvili, A 2020, 'The Attribution Decision Adopted by the opcw’s Conference of States Parties and Its Legality: https://brill.com/view/journals/iolr/17/3/article-p664_664.xml', International Organisations Law Review, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 664.

Orakhelashvili, A 2017, 'Al-Dulimi v. Switzerland', American Journal of International Law, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 767-774. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0002930000763226

Orakhelashvili, A 2017, 'Kosovo and intersecting legal regimes: an interdisciplinary analysis', Global Constitutionalism, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 237-264. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045381717000120

Orakhelashvili, A 2016, 'Article 30 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: Application of the Successive Treaties Relating to the Same Subject-Matter', ICSID Review, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 344–365. https://doi.org/10.1093/icsidreview/siw003

Orakhelashvili, A 2016, 'UN Security Council resolutions in UK courts', Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 39-64. https://doi.org/10.1163/18757413-00190003

Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Orakhelashvili, A 2020, Audience and Authority—The Merit of the Doctrine of Jus Cogens. in M den Heijer & H van der Wilt (eds), Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 2015. 1st edn, Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, vol. 46, T.M.C. Asser Press, pp. 115-145. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-114-2_5

Orakhelashvili, A 2015, Changing Jus Cogens through state practice? The case of the Prohibition of the use of force and its exceptions. in M Weller, JW Rylatt & A Solomou (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Use of Force in International Law. Oxford University Press.


Orakhelashvili, A 2020, Origins, record and narratives: uses and abuses of international legal history: nw original chapter to 2nd edition of research handbook. in A Orakhelashvili (ed.) Research Handbook on Theory and History of International LAw. pp. 296.

Orakhelashvili, A 2019, Jurisdictional immunity of states and general international law – explaining the jus gestionis v. jus imperii divide. in T Ruys, N Angelet & L Ferro (eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Immunities and International Law. Cambridge University Press, pp. 105-124. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108283632.006

Orakhelashvili, A 2018, The Cuban Missile Crisis - 1962. in T Ruys, O Corten & A Hofer (eds), The Use of Force in International Law: A Case-Based Approach. Oxford University Press, pp. 1-11.

Orakhelashvili, A 2017, Commissions of inquiry and traditional mechanisms of dispute settlement. in C Henderson (ed.), Commissions of Inquiry: Problems and Prospects., 5, Bloomsbury, pp. 120-143.

Orakhelashvili, A 2016, Sanctions and fundamental rights of States. in H Matthew (ed.), Sanctions and embargoes in international law. Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp. n/a.

View all publications in research portal



International law