Professor Martin Trybus

Photograph of Professor Martin Trybus

Birmingham Law School
Professor of European Law and Policy
Director, Institute of European Law

Contact details

Birmingham Law School
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT
United Kingdom

The research of Martin Trybus aims to make a contribution to the understanding and development of the Law of the European Union, especially its economic and constitutional aspects, to establish ‘European Union Defence and Security Law’ as a separate legal subject, and to contribute to the understanding and development of European Union Public Procurement Law.


  •  LLM (Wales)
  •  PhD (Wales)
  •  Referendarexamen (Berlin)
  •  Assessorexamen (Düsseldorf)
  • Postgraduate Certificate of Academic Practice (Nottingham)


Martin Trybus read law at the Free University of Berlin (Referendarexamen 1994) before completing his studies for a LL.M. in Business Law (1995) and for a Ph.D. (1997) at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. He qualified in Germany (Assessorexamen 1999), having also completed a stage with the European Commission in Brussels (1999), before starting as a lecturer at the University of Nottingham (2000). He was visiting scholar at George Washington University Law School in Washington DC (2003), at the University of Cape Town (2004), and visiting fellow at the University of Utrecht (2004). An AHRC Research Leave Award (2003-2004) led to his European Union Law and Defence Integration (2005). At the beginning of his Senior Lectureship at the University of Sheffield (2006) he was seconded as Senior Adviser to the SIGMA programme of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris where he coordinated a number of major studies on public procurement in Europe financed by the European Commission. Professor Trybus joined Birmingham Law School in 2007. He served on the Procurement Review Board of the European Space Agency (ESA) 2010-16 and was appointed Senior Research Fellow with RAND Europe in 2014. 2017-21 Professor Trybus coordinates a Marie Skłodowska Curie (Horizon 2020) Innovative Training Network on the EU Trade and Investment Policy (EUTIP).


  • Public Procurement Law (LLM)
  • EU Constitutional Law (LLM)
  • Legal Foundations of the European Union (LLB)
  • EU Defence and Security Law (LLM)
  • Advanced EU Law (LLB)

Postgraduate supervision

European Law
European defence and security integration
Public procurement
Professor Trybus provides doctoral supervision and supervision for other research degrees offered by the University of Birmingham. Particular areas of expertise and interest include public procurement law and policy generally (not only in relation to the EU) and European law and policy, especially in relation to defence integration.

He has supervised research students undertaking research in the following areas:

Barriers to a Transatlantic defence procurement market
European defence procurement regulation
The coherence of EU external relations law towards Sub Saharan Africa
Public procurement and State aids
Public procurement review and remedies
The procurement remedy of ineffectiveness in English law
The promotion of SMEs through public procurement law: a model for Africa
The public procurement chapters of Free Trade Agreements of the EU

Find out more - our PhD Law  page has information about doctoral research at the University of Birmingham.


The research of Martin Trybus aims to make a contribution to the understanding and development of the Law of the European Union, especially its economic and constitutional aspects, to establish ‘EU Defence and Security Law’ as a separate legal subject, and to contribute to the understanding and development of public procurement regulation and policy in general and EU public procurement law in particular.

He is the author of three monographs (‘European Defence Procurement Law’, ‘European Union Law and Defence Integration’, and ‘Buying Defence and Security in Europe’) and seven edited collections. He is currently working on research projects relating to the use of public procurement to promote the participation of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, national security in EU law after the Defence Package, and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.  

Listen to Professor Trybus' 2009 inaugural lecture 'The Legal Foundations of a European Army'.



Other activities

Professor Martin Trybus has been involved in consultancy projects for the Austrian, British, Dutch, Hungarian, and French governments, the European Defence Agency, the European Commission, the European Space Agency, OECD/SIGMA and the OECD. These projects concerned public procurement regulation, in particular public procurement reform in Central and Eastern Europe and the legal aspects of the European armaments market, including in 2007 the translation of the French procurement code into English. In 2008 and 2016 he gave evidence to the European Parliament on the ‘defence package’ of armaments related Directives. Apart from Birmingham he teaches regularly at the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organisation in Turin and the European Institute of Public Administration in Maastricht. 2010-2016 Professor Trybus served the maximum two terms on the Procurement Review Board of the European Space Agency in Paris. For 2014-16 he was also appointed Senior Research Fellow of the think tank RAND Europe and in 2015-2019 served on the jury of the European Law Faculties Association (ELFA) Thesis Prize. He is also serving on the jury of the International Procurement Award Thesis Prize and the Academic Advisory Board of the German Procurement Association Forum Vergabe.

Professor Trybus is the Director of the Institute of European Law, organising, inter alia, The Future of European Law and Policy conference series since 2008. He is a member of the Public Contracts in Legal Globalisation Network, the Procurement Law Academic Network (PLAN), and the European Procurement Law Group. He served on the Peer Review Panel of the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and also reviews research funding applications for the British Academy, the Leverhulme Trust, the Danish Council for Independent Research, the Czech Science Foundation, and the Netherlands Science Foundation NWO.

Recent impact, outreach and dissemination activities include teaching (1) on the ESDC European Armament Cooperation Expert Level Course of the European Defence Agency (EDA) in Vienna (November 2016), Stockholm (November 2017), Maribor (November 2018), and Zagreb (November 2019) (2) on the Aerospace and Defence Contracts Course organised by the University of Bologna in Turin (June 2016), (3) the Defence Procurement Seminars organised by the European Institute of Public Administration in Maastricht (December 2016 and 2017), and on the Defence Day of the Nordic Procurement Forum in Copenhagen (November 2016), an exchange of views meeting with the contracts team of the Austrian Ministry for Defence and Sport (November 2016), evidence to the European Parliament on the reform of the Defence procurement Directive in Brussels (April 2016), a presentation of research to the EDA Defence Acquisition Experts Network (DAEN) Meeting in Brussels (November 2015), a paper at the Jumbo Meeting on EU defence procurement regulation of the European Defence Agency (EDA) in Brussels (March 2017), a seminar for stakeholders in Albanian defence procurement in Tirana in June 2015 and December 2018, a contribution to the Regional Procurement Conference in Beirut organised by OECD/SIGMA (June 2015), participation in an academic focus group for the (UK) Cabinet Office on the future of public procurement regulation after BREXIT in Nottingham (August 2019), and a presentation at the 10th anniversary event for the Defence Procurement Directive of the European Commission in Brussels (November 2019).  

Between 2017 and 2021 Professor Trybus serves as Network Coordinator and Director of Research for an Innovative Training Network on EU Trade and Investment Policy (EUTIP) funded by the Marie Skłodowska Curie (Horizon 2020) scheme of the EU. EUTIP provides supervision and training for 15 doctoral research projects on legal, economic, and political aspects of EUTIP and also involves the universities of London City, Nottingham, Passau, Rotterdam, Speyer, Turin, and Zurich, and the think tanks Egmont (Brussels), ifw (Kiel) and CIREM (Paris) – as well as partners as varied as CEN/CENELEC, Business Europe, Baker McKenzie, RAND Europe and the George Washington University.



  • (Eds. with Martin Burgi and Steen Treumer),Qualification, Selection and Exclusion in EU Procurement (Djøf Publishing: Copenhagen, 2016) 339 pp
  • Buying Defence and Security in Europe: The EU Defence and Security Procurement Directive in Context (CUP: Cambridge, 2014), XXXVI + 534 pp
  • (Eds. with R. Caranta and G. Edelstam) EU Public Contract Law: Public Procurement and Beyond (Bruylant: Brussels, 2014), LXV + 507 pp
  • (Eds. with L. Rubini), The Treaty of Lisbon and the Future of European Law and Policy (Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, 2012), XLVII + 506 pp
  • (Eds. with R. Caranta), The Law of Green and Social Procurement in Europe (Djøf Publishing: Copenhagen, 2010) 330 pp
  • (Eds. with N. D. White), European Security Law (OUP: Oxford, 2007), XVIII + 381 pp
  • (Ed.), Pravo i politika javnih nabavki EU: izbor tekstova (EUPPP: Sarajevo, 2006), XXII + 370 pp
  • European Union Law and Defence Integration (Hart: Oxford, 2005), XXXII + 407 pp
  • (Eds. with S. Arrowsmith) Public Procurement: The Continuing Revolution (Kluwer Law International: The Hague, 2002), XX + 330 pp
  • European Defence Procurement Law: International and National Procurement Systems as Models for a Liberalised Defence Procurement Market in Europe (Kluwer Law International: The Hague, 1999), XL + 312 pp


  • “The Division of Public Contracts into Lots under Directive 2014/24: Minimum Harmonisation and Impact on SMEs in Public Procurement?” (2018) 43 European Law Review 311-340
  • (Ed.) Brexit and the Law School: Re-imagining EU Law  IEL Working Paper 2018-01
  • M. Trybus and M. Andrecka, "Favouring Small and Medium Sized Enterprises with Directive 2014/24/EU" (2017) 12 European Procurement and Public Private Partnerships Law Review 224-238 open access
  • M. Trybus and L. Butler, “The Internal Market and National Security: Transposition, Impact and Reform of the EU Directive on Intra-Community Transfers of Defence Products” (2017) 54 Common Market Law Review 403-442
  • "El derecho de la Unión Europea y la contratación pública" in Alberto Montaña Plata and Jorge Iván Rincón Córdoba (eds.), Contratos Públicos: Problemas, Perspectivas y Prospectivas (Universidad Externado de Colombia: Bogotá, 2017) 743-781, also in English as European Union Law and Public Procurement IEL Working Paper 2017-05
  • "Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and public procurement regulation: the division  of public contracts into lots" in Modernizing International Trade Law to Support Innovation and  Sustainable Development Proceedings of the Congress of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Vienna, 4-6 July 2017 Volume 4: Papers presented at the Congress (United Nations: Vienna, 2017) : 371
  • Commentary of §§ 101, 104, 144, 145, 146, 147 GWB in Gabriel, Mertens, Prieß, Stein (eds.) Beck’scher Online-Kommentar zum Vergaberecht (C. H. Beck Verlag: Munich, 2016)
  • (Eds. with Graham Gee and Luca Rubini) Special Issue “Leaving the EU? The Legal Impact of ‘Brexit’ on the UK” (2016) 22 European Public Law 51-168
  •  “Extracting the UK from EU law: The "Great Repeal Bill"”, Birmingham Perspectives:
  • “The New EU Defence Procurement Regime” in Christopher Bovis (ed.) Research Handbook on EU Public Procurement Law (Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, 2016) 523-547
  • (with Gustavo Piga and Tünde Tátrai) “Supporting social considerations via public procurement” in Gustavo Piga and Tünde Tátrai (eds.), Public Procurement Policy (Routledge: London, 2016) 9-21
  • “The Legal Foundations of a European Army”, 45th UACES Conf. Bilbao 2015:
  • (with Luke Butler) “Facilitating the Intra-Community Transfers of Armaments under the Defence Package: Unwrapping the Other Brother in Arms”, 45th UACES Conference in Bilbao 2015:
  • “The Promotion of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Public Procurement: A Strategic Objective of the New Public Sector Directive” in François Lichère, Roberto Caranta, Steen Treumer (eds.), Modernising Public Procurement: The New Directive (Djøf Publishing: Copenhagen, 2014) 255-280



  • "Das Bundesvergabegesetz im europäischen Vergleich – Eigenheiten und Auffälligkeiten", Symposium Celebrating 25 Years of the Austrian Federal Procurement Law, Constitutional Court, Vienna, 19 March 2018
  • "Facilitating SMEs in public procurement", Nordic Public Procurement Forum, Copenhagen (Denmark), 15 November 2017
  • "Fighting corruption in offset contracts under EU law", 8th Annual Conference of the International Forum on Business Ethical Conduct (IFBEC), Washington DC (USA), 25 October 2017 
  • "EU defence procurement law (Directive 2009/81/EC) and the impact on the US defence industries", International Public Procurement: Comparing the EU and the US: The Case of Military Procurement, Turin (Italy), 22 September 2017
  • "EU law and Public Procurement", XVIII Journadas Internacionales de Derecho Administrativo, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia), 1 September 2017 
  • "Should the division into lots be addressed in the UNCITRAL Model Law on Procurement?", UNCITRAL 50th Anniversary Congress, UN Headquarters, Vienna (Austria), 6 July 2017
  • "Division into lots: increasing the share of SMEs?", Public Procurement: Global Revolution VIII, Nottingham, 12 June 2017  
  • "The European way to increase SME participation in procurement: the division of contracts into lots", Procurement beyond price: sustainability and CSR in public purchasing, Copenhagen (Denmark), 5 May 2017
  • Keynote address: “Never finished? The Continuing Reform of European Procurement Law” at the Annual Law Conference of the Institute of Legal Studies at the Hungarian Academy of Science, November 2016, ELTE, Budapest (Hungary)
  • “Article 346 TFEU and the Defence Directive: an emergency break?” Defence Day of the Nordic Procurement Forum, November 2016, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • “The Regulatory Framework of Article 346 TFEU and Directive 2009/81/EC” University of Copenhagen conference: Private actors as providers of social and security services – responsibility and liability, November 2016, Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • “Renegotiation of Public Contracts: an EU Law Perspective”, 3rd International Procurement Symposium, September 2016, Belgrade (Serbia)
  • “Defence Procurement: the EU Perspective”, 1st Global Procurement Conference, July 2016, University of Rome III Tor Vergata, Frascati (Italy)
  • « Directive 2014/25/EU: Towards a level playing field for SMEs in utilities procurement? », 2nd International Conference on Reform of the Public Procurement Law : Public Utilities Sector and PPP, October 2015, University of Łodz (Poland)
  • “The Legal Foundations of a European Army” and (with Luke Butler) “Facilitating the Intra-Community Transfers of Armaments under the Defence Package: Unwrapping the Other Brother in Arms”, 45th UACES Conference, September 2015, University of Deusto, Bilbao (Spain)

View all publications in research portal


Law of the European Union, especially its economic and constitutional aspects

European Union Defence and Security Law

European Union Public Procurement Law