Professor Andrew Bagshaw BSc, MSc, PhD

Professor Andrew Bagshaw

School of Psychology
Professor of Imaging Neuroscience

Contact details

School of Psychology
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Professor Bagshaw's main interest is in developing and applying non-invasive neuroimaging methods to questions in clinical and behavioural neuroscience. Current work in the Multimodal Integration Group (MIG) focuses on using EEG-fMRI to understand the influence of ongoing brain activity on evoked and behavioural responses, and to examine the localisation and functional significance of electrophysiological discharges in epilepsy and sleep. The group is also working on methods to combine structural and functional brain networks in order to shed light on how sleep and epilepsy affect the brain.


BSc, MSc, PhD


Andy Bagshaw is a physicist by training, having completed a PhD in Nuclear Physics at the University of Manchester in 1998. He went on to undertake postdoctoral positions at City University London, University College London (UCL), and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI). It was at UCL and subsequently the MNI that he first worked on the development of brain imaging techniques, with a specific focus on epilepsy. He has worked at the University of Birmingham since 2005, where he is Professor of Imaging Neuroscience and Co-Director of the Centre for Human Brain Health.

Postgraduate supervision

Professor Bagshaw currently supervises or co-supervises 5 PhD students. Prospective students are always welcome to get in touch (


Professor Bagshaw is interested in developing the combination of EEG and fMRI to provide more precise spatial and temporal localisation of brain activity. Measuring both the electrical and haemodynamic responses to a task or neural event offers the possibility of new insights into the basic mechanisms of brain function, and greater understanding of disorders of function, such as epilepsy and sleep disorders. The Multimodal Integration Group (MIG) are using EEG-fMRI to study response covariability in single trials with robust sensory paradigms, developing methods to improve data quality based on independent component analysis and methods to integrate the data based on information theory, as well as using these techniques to study questions in cognitive neuroscience, sleep and epilepsy. They are also examining the link between the information provided by structural and functional imaging and that from neuropsychological testing in order to understand more about the effect of epilepsy on normal brain functions.

Other activities

Professor Bagshaw sits on the Scientific Advisory Committee of Epilepsy Research UK ( He is also Chair of the Midlands Medical Imaging Network (, and co-Chair of the Birmingham Epilepsy Research Network.


1.         Moore M, Maclin EL, Iordan AD, Katsumi Y, Larsen RJ, Bagshaw AP, Mayhew SD, Shafer AD, Sutton BP, Fabiani M, Gratton G, Dolcos F. Proof-of-concept evidence for trimodal simultaneous investigation of human brain function. Human Brain Mapping. In press.

2.         Facer-Childs ER, Campos BM, Middleton B, Skene DJ, Bagshaw AP. Temporal organisation of the brain’s intrinsic motor network: the relationship with circadian phenotype and motor performance. Neuroimage. 232 117840 (2021)

3.         Porcaro C, Mayhew SD, Bagshaw AP. Role of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex in the visuo-motor network during fine contraction and accurate performance. Int J Neural Systems 31(6) 2150011 (2021)

4.         Winsor A, Richards C, Seri S, Liew A, Bagshaw AP. Sleep disruption in children and adolescents with epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev 57 101416 (2021)

5.         Heinze K, Cumming J, Dosanjh A, Palin S, Poulton S, Bagshaw AP, Broome MR. Neurobiological evidence of longer-term physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes and cognition in young people: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 120 431-441 (2021)

6.         Porcaro C, Mayhew SD, Marino M, Mantini D, Bagshaw AP. Characterisation of haemodynamic activity in resting state networks by fractal analysis. Int J Neural Systems 30(12) 2050061 (2020)

7.         Facer-Childs ER, Middleton B, Bagshaw AP, Skene DJ. Human Circadian Phenotyping and Diurnal Performance Testing in the Real World. J Vis Exp 158 (2020)

8.         Khalsa S, Qureshi K, Bagshaw AP, Rather A. Late diagnosis of narcolepsy with cataplexy; A novel case of cataplectic facies presenting in an elderly woman. J Clin Sleep Med 15(11) 1687-1690 (2019)

9.         Facer-Childs ER, Middleton B, Skene DJ, Bagshaw AP. Resetting the late timing of ‘night owls’ has a positive impact on mental health and performance. Sleep Medicine 60 236 – 247 (2019)

10.      Facer-Childs ER, Campos BM, Middleton M, Skene DJ, Bagshaw AP. Circadian phenotype impacts the brain’s resting state functional connectivity, attentional performance and sleepiness. Sleep 42(5) 1 – 12 (2019)

11.      Wilson RS, Mayhew SD, Rollings DT, Goldstone A, Hale JR, Bagshaw AP. Sleep history predicts functional connectivity in the default mode network during wake and NREM sleep. Brain and Behavior 9(1) e01172 (2019)

12.      Goldstone A, Mayhew SD, Hale JR, Wilson RS, Bagshaw AP. Thalamic functional connectivity and its association with behavioural performance in older age. Brain and Behavior 8(4) e00943 (2018)

13.      Bagshaw AP, Hale JR, Campos BM, Rollings DT, Wilson RS, Alvim MK, Coan AC, Cendes F. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy. Neuroimage:Clinical 16 52 – 57 (2017)

14.      Mayhew SD, Bagshaw AP. Dynamic spatiotemporal variability of alpha-BOLD relationships during the resting-state and task-evoked responses. Neuroimage 155 120 – 137 (2017)

15.      Khalsa S, Hale JR, Goldstone A, Wilson RS, Mayhew SD, Bagary M, Bagshaw AP. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain. Neurobiol Sleep Circadian Rhythms 3 17 – 25 (2017)

16.      Mayhew SD, Porcaro C, Tecchio F, Bagshaw AP. fMRI characterisation of widespread brain networks relevant for behavioural variability in fine hand motor control with and without visual feedback. Neuroimage 148 330 – 342 (2017)

17.      Goldstone A, Mayhew SD, Przezdzik I, Wilson RS, Hale JR, Bagshaw AP. Gender specific re-organisation of resting-state networks in older age. Front Aging Neurosci 8 285 (2016)

18.      Mayhew SD, Mullinger KJ, Ostwald D, Porcaro C, Bowtell R, Bagshaw AP, Francis ST. Global signal modulation of single-trial fMRI response variability: effect on positive vs negative BOLD response relationship. Neuroimage 133 62 – 74 (2016)

19.      Khalsa S, Mayhew SD, Przezdzik I, Wilson RS, Hale JR, Goldstone A, Bagary M, Bagshaw AP. Variability in cumulative habitual sleep duration predicts waking functional connectivity. Sleep 39(1) 97 – 95 (2016)

20.      Rollings DT, Assecondi S, Ostwald D, Porcaro C, McCorry D, Bagary M, Soryal I, Bagshaw AP. Early haemodynamic changes observed in patients with epilepsy, in a visual experiment and in simulations. Clin Neurophysiol 127(1) 245 – 253 (2016)

21.      Hale JR, White TP, Mayhew SD, Wilson RS, Rollings DT, Khalsa S, Arvanitis TN, Bagshaw AP. Altered thalamocortical and intra-thalamic functional connectivity during light sleep compared with wake. Neuroimage 125 657 – 667 (2016)

22.      Hale JR, Mayhew SD, Mullinger KJ, Wilson RS, Arvanitis TN, Francis ST, Bagshaw AP. Comparison of functional thalamic segmentation from seed-based analysis and ICA. Neuroimage 114 448 – 65 (2015)

23.      Wilson RS, Mayhew SD, Rollings DT, Goldstone A, Przezdzik I, Arvanitis TN, Bagshaw AP. Influence of epoch length on measurement of dynamic functional connectivity and behavioural validation in sleep. Neuroimage 112 169 – 179 (2015)

24.      Assecondi S, Ostwald D, Bagshaw AP. Reliability of information-based integration of EEG and fMRI data: a simulation study. Neural Computation 27(2) 281 – 305 (2015)

25.      Mayhew SD, Mullinger KJ, Bagshaw AP, Bowtell R, Francis ST. Investigating intrinsic connectivity networks using simultaneous BOLD and CBF measurements. Neuroimage 99 111 – 121 (2014)

26.      Mullinger KJ, Mayhew SD, Bagshaw AP, Bowtell R, Francis ST. Evidence that the negative BOLD response is neuronal in origin: a simultaneous EEG-BOLD-CBF study in humans. Neuroimage 94 263 – 74 (2014)

27.      Khalsa S, Mayhew SD, Chechlacz M, Bagary M and Bagshaw AP. The structural and functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex: Comparison between deterministic and probabilistic tractography for the investigation of structure-function relationships. Neuroimage 102 118 – 127 (2014)

28.      Bagshaw AP, Rollings DT, Khalsa S and Cavanna AE. Multimodal neuroimaging investigations of alterations to consciousness: the relationship between absence epilepsy and sleep. Epilepsy and Behaviour 30 33 – 37 (2014)

29.      Mullinger KJ, Mayhew SD, Bagshaw AP, Bowtell R, Francis ST. Poststimulus undershoots in cerebral blood flow and BOLD fMRI responses are modulated by poststimulus neuronal activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(33) 13636 – 41 (2013)

30.      Mayhew SD, Ostwald D, Porcaro C and Bagshaw AP. Spontaneous EEG alpha oscillation interacts with positive and negative BOLD responses in the visual-auditory cortices and default-mode network. Neuroimage 76 362 – 372 (2013)

31.      Mayhew SD, Hylands-White N, Porcaro C, Derbyshire SW and Bagshaw AP. Intrinsic variability in the human response to pain is assembled from multiple, dynamic brain processes. Neuroimage 75(1) 68 – 78 (2013)

32.      Bagshaw AP and Cavanna AE. Resting state networks in paroxysmal disorders of consciousness. Epilepsy and Behaviour 26 290 – 294 (2013)

33.      Braithwaite JJ, Broglia E, Bagshaw AP and Wilkins AJ. Evidence for elevated cortical hyperexcitability and its association with out-of-body experiences in the non-clinical population: New findings from a pattern-glare task. Cortex 49(3) 793 – 805 (2013)

34.      Ostwald D, Porcaro C, Mayhew SD and Bagshaw AP. EEG-fMRI based information theoretic characterization of the human perceptual decision system. PLoS One 7(4) e33896 (2012)

35.      Schwartz TH, Hong S-B, Bagshaw AP, Chauvel P and Bénar C-G. Preictal changes in cerebral haemodynamics: review of findings and insights from intracerebral EEG. Epilepsy Res 97(3) 252 – 266 (2011)

36.      Ostwald D and Bagshaw AP. Information theoretic approaches to functional neuroimaging. Magn Reson Imag 29 1417 – 1428 (2011)

37.      Lei X, Ostwald D, Hu J, Qiu C, Porcaro C, Bagshaw AP and Yao D. Multimodal functional network connectivity: an EEG-fMRI fusion in network space. PLoS One 6(9) e24642 (2011)

38.      Porcaro C, Ostwald D, Hadjipapas A, Barnes GR and Bagshaw AP. The relationship between the visual evoked potential and the gamma band investigated by blind and semi-blind methods. Neuroimage 56(3) 1059 – 1071 (2011)

39.      Bagshaw AP and Cavanna AE. Brain mechanisms of altered consciousness in focal seizures. Behav Neurol 24(1) 35 – 41 (2011)

40.      Duncan KK, Hadjipapas A, Li S, Kourtzi Z, Bagshaw A, Barnes G. Identifying spatially overlapping local cortical networks with MEG. Hum Brain Mapp. 31(7) 1003 – 1016 (2011)

41.      Ostwald D, Porcaro C and Bagshaw AP. Voxel-wise information theoretic EEG-fMRI feature integration. Neuroimage 55(3) 1270 – 1286 (2011)

42.      Cauda F, Geminiani G, D'Agata F, Sacco K, Duca S, Bagshaw AP, Cavanna AE. Functional connectivity of the posteromedial cortex. PLoS One 5(9) e13107 (2010)

43.      Porcaro C, Ostwald D and Bagshaw AP. Functional source separation improves the quality of single trial visual evoked potentials recorded during concurrent EEG-fMRI. Neuroimage 50(1) 112 – 123 (2010)

44.      Ostwald D, Porcaro C and Bagshaw AP. An information theoretic approach to EEG-fMRI integration of visually evoked responses. Neuroimage 49(1) 498 – 516 (2010)

45.      Cavanna AE, Bagshaw AP, McCorry D. The neural correlates of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures. Discov Med 8(40) 31 – 36 (2009)

46.      Bagshaw AP, Jacobs J, LeVan P, Dubeau F and Gotman J. Effect of sleep stage on interictal high frequency oscillations recorded from depth macroelectrodes in patients with focal epilepsy. Epilepsia 50(4) 617 – 628 (2009)

47.      Warbrick T, Derbyshire SWD and Bagshaw AP. Optimizing the measurement of contact heat evoked potentials. J Clin Neurophysiol 26(2) 117 – 122 (2009)

48.      Warbrick T and Bagshaw AP. Scanning strategies for simultaneous EEG-fMRI evoked potential studies at 3T. Int J Psychophysiol 67(3) 169 – 177 (2008)

49.      Grova C, Daunizeau J, Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Lina JM, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Concordance between distributed EEG source localization and simultaneous EEG-fMRI studies of epileptic spikes. Neuroimage 39(2) 755 – 774 (2008)

50.      Bagshaw AP and Warbrick T. Single trial variability of EEG and fMRI responses to visual stimuli. Neuroimage 38(2) 280 – 292 (2007)

51.      Hawco CS, Bagshaw AP, Lu Y, Dubeau F, Gotman J. BOLD changes occur prior to epileptic spikes seen on scalp EEG. Neuroimage 35(4) 1450 – 1458 (2007)

52.      Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Gotman J and Dubeau F. Metabolic correlates of epileptic spikes in cerebral cavernous angiomas. Epilepsy Res 73(1) 98 – 103 (2007)

53.      Bagshaw AP, Torab L, Kobayashi E, Hawco C, Dubeau F, Pike GB, Gotman J. EEG-fMRI using z-shimming in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. J Magn Reson Imag 24 1025 – 1032 (2006)

54.      Lu Y, Bagshaw AP, Grova C, Kobayashi E, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Using voxel-specific hemodynamic response functions in EEG-fMRI data analysis. Neuroimage 32(1) 238 – 247 (2006)

55.      Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Grova C, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Negative BOLD responses to epileptic spikes. Hum Brain Mapp 27(6) 488 – 497 (2006)

56.      Bénar CG, Grova C, Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Aghakhani Y, Dubeau F, Gotman J. EEG-fMRI of epileptic spikes: concordance with EEG source localization and intracranial EEG. Neuroimage 30(4) 1161 – 1170 (2006)

57.      Gotman J, Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Bénar CG, Dubeau F. Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research. J Magn Reson Imag 23(6) 906 – 920 (2006)

58.      Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Grova C, Gotman J and Dubeau F. Grey matter heterotopia: what EEG-fMRI can tell us about the epileptogenicity of neuronal migration disorders. Brain 129 366 – 374 (2006)

59.      Bagshaw AP, Kobayashi E, Dubeau F, Pike GB, Gotman J. Correspondence between EEG-fMRI and EEG dipole localisation of interictal discharges in focal epilepsy. Neuroimage 30 417 – 425 (2006)

60.      Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Bénar CG, Aghakhani Y, Andermann F, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Temporal and extratemporal BOLD responses to temporal lobe interictal spikes. Epilepsia 47 343 – 354 (2006)

61.      Aghakhani Y, Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Hawco C, Bénar CG, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Cortical and thalamic fMRI responses in partial epilepsy with focal and bilateral synchronous spikes. Clin Neurophysiol 117 177 – 191 (2006)

62.      Gotman J, Grova C, Bagshaw A, Kobayashi E, Aghakhani Y, Dubeau F. Generalized epileptic discharges show thalamo-cortical activation and suspension of the default state of the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102 15236 – 15240 (2005)

63.      Stefanovic B, Warnking JM, Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Hawco C, Dubeau F, Gotman J, Pike GB. Hemodynamic and metabolic responses to activation, deactivation and epileptic discharges. Neuroimage 28 205 – 215 (2005)

64.      Kobayashi E, Bagshaw AP, Jansen A, Andermann F, Andermann E, Gotman J, Dubeau F. Intrinsic epileptogenicity of polymicrogyric cortex suggested by EEG-fMRI BOLD responses. Neurology 64 1263 – 1266 (2005)

65.      Bagshaw AP, Hawco C, Bénar CG, Kobayashi E, Aghakhani Y, Dubeau F, Pike GB, Gotman J. Analysis of the EEG-fMRI response to prolonged bursts of interictal epileptiform activity. Neuroimage 24 1099 – 1112 (2005)

66.      Bagshaw AP, Aghakhani Y, Bénar CG, Kobayashi E, Hawco C, Dubeau F, Pike GB, Gotman J. EEG-fMRI of focal epileptic spikes: analysis with multiple haemodynamic functions and comparison with gadolinium-enhanced MR angiograms. Hum Brain Mapp 22(3) 179 – 192 (2004)

67.      Aghakhani Y, Bagshaw AP, Bénar CG, Hawco C, Andermann F, Dubeau F, Gotman J. FMRI activation during spike and wave discharges in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Brain 127 1127 – 1144 (2004)

68.      Bagshaw AP, Liston AD, Bayford RH, Tizzard A, Gibson AP, Tidswell AT, Sparkes MK, Dehghani H, Binnie CD, Holder DS. Electrical Impedance Tomography of human brain function using reconstruction algorithms based on the finite element method. Neuroimage 20 752 – 764 (2003)

69.      Tidswell AT, Bagshaw AP, Holder DS, Yerworth RJ, Eadie L, Murray S, Morgan L, Bayford RH. A comparison of headnet electrode arrays for electrical impedance tomography of the human head. Physiol Meas 24(2) 527 – 544 (2003)

70.      Bagshaw AP, Farquharson MJ. Simultaneous determination of iron, copper and zinc concentrations in skin phantoms using XRF spectrometry. X-ray Spectrometry 31(1) 47 – 52 (2002)

71.      Simpson J, Bagshaw AP, Pipidis A et al. Discrete line gamma-ray spectroscopy in the (50-60)h spin domain of Er-161,Er-162. Phys Rev C 62(2) 024321  

72.      Farquharson MJ, Bagshaw AP, Porter JB, Abeysinghe RD. The use of skin Fe levels as a surrogate marker for organ Fe levels, to monitor treatment in cases of iron overload. Phys Med Biol 45(5) 1387 – 1396 (2000)

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