My research explores children’s adoption in Islam. This is a multidisciplinary study and considers social, theological, and legal perspectives. The study explores several questions, including why adoption is prohibited in Islam and whether this prohibition comes from the Qur’an/ ahadith or fiqh (jurisprudence). Second, whether adoption as we understand today for vulnerable children’s placement with families was practiced in pre-Islamic Arabian Peninsula or was there a regime to care or adopt vulnerable children. What were the historic motivations for adoption and whether it involved children or only adults? Third, adoption practices in majority Muslim majority countries and the consideration of welfare principle in line with developments in children’s rights, i.e. how Muslim countries consider the best interests of the child as defined in Art.3 of the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of the child 1989. Fourth, whether existing framework in Islamic law for parentless children meet contemporary safeguarding developments. In other words, whether these historic recommendations cover new developments in childcare provisions. In addition, the understanding of mahram (modesty), suckling, inheritance, and biological identity of adopted children in a contemporary context. The findings provide a comprehensive policy framework in line with Qur’an and ahadith for vulnerable children’s care and placement including adoption and fostering.