Dr Rebecca A Drummond

Dr Rebecca A Drummond

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy
Birmingham Fellow

Contact details

Institute of Immunology & Immunotherapy
College of Medical and Dental Sciences
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Rebecca Drummond is a fungal immunologist researching mechanisms of immunity that protect us from fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Her lab is particularly interested in how organ-specific immune responses develop by studying the behaviour of tissue-resident myeloid cells during infection and the microbial response to the environment within host tissues.


  • PhD Immunobiology, University of Aberdeen (2014)
  • BSc (Hons) Immunology, University of Edinburgh (2010)


Rebecca completed her BSc in Immunology with Honours at the University of Edinburgh in 2010. She then moved to the University of Aberdeen and joined the Aberdeen Fungal Group, where she earned her PhD in 2014. Rebecca’s doctoral research focused on understanding mechanisms of adaptive antifungal immunity and revealed a novel role for the innate receptor Dectin-1 in the gut (Drummond et al, 2016, Mucosal Immunology), as well as identifying defects in the fungal-specific T-cell response in the kidney (Drummond et al, 2014, JI).

In 2014, Rebecca moved to the USA to work at the National Institutes of Health. Here, she primarily focused on understanding the pathogenesis of human CARD9 deficiency, a primary immunodeficiency disease that predisposes to fungal infection of the brain (Drummond et al, 2015, PLoS Pathogens).

In 2018, Rebecca was awarded a Birmingham Fellow position to set up her own research group at the University of Birmingham.

Postgraduate supervision

Students interested in working with Dr Drummond should contact her directly by emailing r.drummond@bham.ac.uk


Diseases that are a current focus in the group are:

  • Cryptococcal meningitis
  • Invasive candidiasis
We are most interested in organs that become infected in these diseases (brain, kidney, gut, lungs) and the immune responses occurring there, especially that of myeloid cells. Another major interest in the group is how fungi behave and respond to their environment within different organs, and how this shapes the subsequent immune response.


Drummond, R.A., F.T. Zahra, M. Natarajan, M. Swamydas, A.P. Hsu, L.J. Wheat, C. Gavino, D.C. Vinh, S.H. Holland, C.M. Mikelis and M. S. Lionakis. GM-CSF Therapy in Human CARD9 Deficiency. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2018. Doi (In Press).

Cougnoux A.*, R.A. Drummond (equal first authorship), A.L. Collar, J.R. Iben, A. Salman, H. Westgarth, C.A. Wassif, N.X. Cawley, N.Y. Farhat, K. Ozato, M.S. Lionakis and F.D. Porter. Microglia Activation in Neimann-Pick Disease, type C1 is Amenable to Therapeutic Intervention. Human Molecular Genetics, 2018. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddy112

St. Leger A. J., J.V. Desai, R.A. Drummond, A. Kugadas, F. Almaghrabi, P. Silver, K. Raychaudhuri, M. Gadjeva, Y. Iwakura, M.S. Lionakis, and R.R. Caspi, An Ocular Commensal Protects against Corneal Infection by Driving an Interleukin-17 Response from Mucosal Gamma-Delta T Cells. Immunity, 2017. 47: 148-158.e5.

Rieber, N., R.P. Gazendam, A. Freeman, A. Hsu, A. Collar, J. Sugui, R.A. Drummond, ….. D. Hartl, T.W. Kuijpers and M.S. Lionakis. Extrapulmonary Aspergillus Infection in Patients with CARD9 Deficiency. Journal of Clinical Immunology Insight, 2016. 1(17):e89890. doi:10.1172/jci.insight.89890. 

Drummond, R.A., I. Dambuza, S. Vautier, J.A. Taylor, D.M. Reid, C.C. Bain, D.M. Underhill, D. Masopust, D.H. Kaplan and G.D. Brown. CD4+ T-cell survival in the GI Tract requires Dectin-1 during fungal infection. Mucosal Immunology, 2016. 9: 492 – 502. PMCID: PMC4677461

Drummond, R.A., A.L. Collar, M. Swamydas, C.A. Rodriguez, J.K. Lim, L.M. Mendez, D.L. Fink, A.P. Hsu, B. Zhai et al …. and M.S. Lionakis. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects Against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System. PLoS Pathogens, 2015. 11(12): e1005293. PMCID: PMC4683065

Dyer, K.D., D.A.G. Barisas, T.A. Brenner, R.A. Drummond, K.A. Karpe, C.M. Percopo, T.A. Rice, M.L. Moore and H.F. Rosenberg.  Priming of the Respiratory Tract with Immunobiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Limits Infection of Alveolar Macrophages with Recombinant Pneumonia Virus of Mice (rK2-PVM). Journal of Virology, 2015. 90(2): 979-991. PMCID: PMC4702661

O’Hayre, M., A. Inoue, I. Kufareva, Z. Wang, C.M. Mikelis, R.A. Drummond, F. Guo, S. Avino, K. Finkel, et al….and J.S. Gutkind. Inactivating Mutations in GNA13 and RHOA in Burkitt’s Lymphoma and Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma: A Tumor Suppressor Function for the Ga13/RhoA Axis in B Cells. Oncogene ,2015. doi: 10.1038/onc.2015.442.

Redelinghuys, P., A. Augello, R.A. Drummond, S. Vautier, D.M. Reid, B. Kerscher, J.A. Taylor, G.I. Murray, L.J. Hocking, M.J.G. Fernandes, C. De Bari, I.B. McInnes and G.D. Brown. MICL controls inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 2015. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206644

Hadebe, S., F. Kirsten, K. Fierens, K. Chen, R.A. Drummond, S. Vautier, S.Sajaniemi, G.I. Murray, D. Williams, P. Redelinghuys, T. Reinhart, B.F. Junecko, J. Kolls, B. Lambrecht, F. Brombacher and G.D. Brown. Microbial ligand costimulation drives neutrophilic steroid-refractory asthma. PLoS ONE, 2015. 10(8): e0134219. PMCID: PMC4532492

Szymanski, E.P., J.M. Leung, C.J. Fowler, C. Haney, A.P. Hsu, F. Chen, P. Duggal, A. Oler, R. McCormack, E. Podack, R.A. Drummond, M.S. Lionakis, ... and S.M. Holland. Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection: A multisystem multigenic disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2015. 192(5):618-28. PMCID: PMC4595692

Kashem, S.W., B.Z. Igyarto, M. Gerami-Nejad, Y. Kumamoto, E. Jarrett, R.A. Drummond, S.M. Zurawski, G. Zurawski, J. Berman, G.D. Brown, A. Iwasaki and D.H. Kaplan. Candida albicans morphology and DC subsets determines T helper differentiation. Immunity, 2015. 42(2): 356-366. PMCID: PMC4343045

Wilson, G.J.*, J. Marakalala*, C. Hoving*, A. van Laarhoven*, R.A. Drummond, B. Kerscher, D. Govender, D.M. Reid, M. Jacobs, C. Wallace, J. Willment, M. Netea, R.  van Crevel,  and G.D. Brown. The C-Type Lectin Receptor CLECSF8/CLEC4D Is a Key Component of Anti-Mycobacterial Immunity. Cell Host & Microbe, 2015. 17(2): 252 – 259. PMCID: PMC4334100

Drummond, R.A., D.M. Reid, D.H. Kaplan, S. Way and G.D. Brown. Cutting Edge: Failure of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell recruitment to the kidney during systemic candidiasis. Journal of Immunology, 2014. 193(11): 5381 – 5385. PMCID:PMC4238746

Vautier, S*., R.A. Drummond (equal first authorship), K. Chen, G.I. Murray, D. Kadosh, A.J.P. Brown, N.A.R. Gow, D.M. MacCallum, J. K. Kolls and G. D. Brown. Candida albicans colonization and dissemination from the murine gastrointestinal tract: the influence of morphology and Th17 immunity. Cellular Microbiology, 2014. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12388. PMCID: PMC4409086

Lim, E.K., P.J. Mitchell, N. Brown, R.A. Drummond, G.D. Brown, P.M. Kaye, and D.J. Bowles. Regiospecific methylation of a dietary flavonoid scaffold selectively enhances IL-1β production following Toll-like receptor 2 stimulation in THP-1 monocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2013. 288(29): 21126-21135. PMCID: PMC3774379

Vautier, S., R.A. Drummond, P. Redelinghuys, G.I. Murray, D.M. MacCallum, and G.D. Brown. Dectin-1 is not required for controlling Candida albicans colonisation of the murine gastrointestinal tract. Infection and Immunity, 2012. doi: 10.1128/​IAI.00559-12. PMCID: PMC3497410

Caserta, S., N. Nausch, A. Sawtell, R. Drummond, T. Barr, A. S. MacDonald, F. Mutapi, and R. Zamoyska. Chronic infection drives expression of the inhibitory receptor CD200R, and its ligand CD200, by mouse and human CD4 T cells. PLoS ONE, 2012. 7(4): e35466. PMCID: PMC3322173


Drummond, R.A. and M. S. Lionakis. Candidiasis of the Central Nervous System in Neonates and Children with primary Immunodeficiences. Current Fungal Infection Reports, 2018.  12(2): 92-97

Drummond, R. A and M. S. Lionakis. Organ-Specific Mechanisms Linking Innate and Adaptive Antifungal Immunity. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 2018. pii: S1084-9521(17)30173-8

Drummond, R. A. Neuro-Immune Mechanisms of Anti-Cryptococcal Protection. Journal of Fungi, 2017. 4(4): 4

Drummond, R.A. and M. S. Lionakis. Mechanistic insights into the Role of C-type lectin/CARD9 Signaling in Human Antifungal Immunity. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2016. 6(39): doi:10.3389/fcimb.2016.00039. PMCID: PMC4820464

Drummond, R.A. and G.D. Brown. Signalling C-type Lectins in Anti-Microbial Immunity. PLoS Pathogens Pearls, 2013. 9(7): e1003417. PMCID: PMC3723563

Drummond, R.A. and G.D. Brown. The role of Dectin-1 in the host defence against fungal infections. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2011. 14(4):  392-399.

Drummond, R.A.*, S. Saijo*, Y. Iwakura, and G.D. Brown. The role of Syk/CARD9 coupled C-type lectins in antifungal immunity. European Journal of Immunology, 2011. 41(2):  276-281. PMCID: PMC4434674

Drummond, R.A., S. Gaffen, A. Hise and G.D. Brown. Innate Defence Against Fungal Pathogens, in Human Fungal Pathogens (ed. A. Casadevall et al) Cold Spring Harbour Perspectives in Medicine, 2014. PMCID: PMC4426252