Monica Lloyd

School of Psychology
Associate Professor in Forensic Psychology

Contact details

School of Psychology
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Monica Lloyd is a chartered and HCPC registered forensic psychologist who joined the University on retirement from Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service. She set up and continues to teach on the combined forensic clinical psychology doctorate training course, which started in 2013 and now has 15 alumni. Her specialism is the Psychology of Terrorism, which developed from working with terrorist offenders in custody. She continues to offer consultancy to the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism in the UK, is an Associate of the Centre for Research and Evidence in Security Threats (CREST) and a member of the expert pool for the European Radicalisation Awareness Network.


BA (Hons) Psychology (University of Exeter)
MSc in Applied Criminological Psychology (Birkbeck College)
Chartered Forensic Psychologist 1989
HCPC registered 2011
Elected Fellow of the BPS 2017


Monica Lloyd gained her professional qualifications within the Prison Service and over the course of her career worked in prisons, HM Inspectorate of Prisons and the National Offender Management Service (now HMPPS). She co-produced the methodology for assessing risk and needs in extremist offenders (the ERG22+) that has become a common assessment framework for the criminal justice system and informs the work of Prevent. She continues to work in the area of counter-terrorism, and part time as Training Coordinator for the joint forensic clincial doctorate programme.


Monica Lloyd acts as Training Coordinator for the Doctorate course in Forensic Clinical Psychology and teaches Theories of Extremism and Working with Extremist Offenders.

Postgraduate supervision

Students wishing to enquire about post-graduate supervision at the University should contact her via her University e mail.


Research interests

  • the psychology and extremism and terrorism
  • extremism risk assessment
  • extremism pathways and mental health
  • the mental health effects of solitary confinement
  • the psychology of lone actors
  • ethical guidelines for working with extremist offenders

Other activities

  • Member of the Editorial Board of the Prison Service Journal
  • Consultancy to the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism in the Home Office
  • Contributor to the Global Centre for Cooperative Security
  • European Commission: Radicalisation Awareness Network, from July 2020


Recent publications


Logan, C & Lloyd, M 2019, 'Violent extremism: a comparison of approaches to assessing and managing risk', Legal and Criminological Psychology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 141-161.

Lloyd, M & Kleinot, P 2017, 'Pathways into terrorism: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly', Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 367-377.

Lloyd, M & Dean, C 2015, 'The development of structured guidelines for assessing risk in extremist offenders', Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 40-52.

Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Lloyd, M & Kleinot, P 2018, Pathways into terrorism: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly. in J Yakeley & P Cundy (eds), Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Fundamentalism, Radicalisation and Terrorism. 1st edn, Routledge.


Lloyd, M 2021, From Empirical Beginnings to Emerging Theory. in R Corrado, G Wössner & A Merari (eds), Terrorism Risk Assessment Instruments: Contemporary Policy and Law Enforcement Challenges. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - E: Human and Societal Dynamics, vol. 152, IOS Press, pp. 259-279.

Lloyd, M 2021, Making Sense of terrorist violence and building psychological expertise. in JR Meloy & J Hoffmann (eds), International Handbook of Threat Assessment. 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 624-638.

Commissioned report

Lloyd, M 2019, Extremist risk assessments: a directory. Actors and Narratives, Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST). < >

British Psychological Society, Division of Forensic Psychology (DFP) Extremism working party, Al-Attar, Z, Bates-Gaston, J, Dean, C & Lloyd, M 2018, Ethical guidelines for applied psychological practice in the field of extremism, violent extremism and terrorism. British Psychological Society. <>

Other report

Lloyd, M 2021, Ethical Guidelines for Working on P/CVE in Mental Health Care. European Union, Luxembourg. < >

Dean, C, Lloyd, M & Christopher, F 2021, Guidance on Establishing Frameworks to Assess Violent Extremism in Prisons. Global Center on Cooperative Security. <>

Lloyd, M & Pauwels, A 2021, Lone Actors as a Challenge for P/CVE. European Union, Luxembourg. < >

View all publications in research portal