Dr Louise J Jackson

Dr Louise Jackson

Institute of Applied Health Research
Associate Professor

Contact details

Health Economics Unit
Institute of Applied Health Research
College of Medical and Dental Sciences
IOEM Building
Birmingham B15 2TT

Louise Jackson is an Associate Professor within the Institute of Applied Health Research at the University of Birmingham.

Louise is Co-Head of Education for the Institute of Applied Health Research which involves overseeing education provision across all postgraduate and undergraduate programmes for the Institute.

Louise has broad range of methodological experience and expertise. She is interested in applied research that improves health and care services, especially for young people and women. Louise has specific expertise in relation to: economic evaluation; outcome and cost measurement; preference elicitation; and qualitative evidence synthesis and reporting. She works closely with stakeholders and is interested in mixed methods research that aims to meet the needs of decision-makers, particularly in public health.


  • MSc Health Economics & Health Policy, University of Birmingham, 2014 (Distinction)
  • PhD in Geography, University of Birmingham, 1999
  • MSocSc Russian & East European Studies, University of Birmingham, 1994
  • BA Geography, Oxford University, 1992


Dr Louise Jackson joined the University of Birmingham in October 2012, having previously worked in health and social care for over 10 years. A key focus of Louise Jackson’s work is the evaluation of interventions and services in sexual health, maternal health and public health. She has been the principal investigator (PI) on a range projects and is currently PI on a funded project exploring the costs and benefits of online sexually transmitted infection screening.

Louise Jackson has been a co-applicant on a number of NIHR funded projects. For example, the G-TOG project examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for gonorrhoea. She is currently involved in the MESARCH project which is evaluating Sexual Assault Referral Centres (SARCs) across England in terms of benefits and costs to service users and survivors of sexual assault and rape. Prior to this she was involved in research examining the effects of weight management interventions on maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancy (the iWIP study).

The research of Dr Jackson has had international and national impact. She has presented her research at national and international conferences as well as publishing in leading academic journals.

Dr Jackson is currently the Deputy Programme Director for the two programmes which are delivered by the Health Economics Unit, MSc Health Economics and Health Policy and MSc Health Economics and Econometrics. Louise Jackson contributes to teaching for these programmes and more broadly across the Institute of Applied Health Research and College of Medical and Dental Sciences.


Postgraduate supervision

Louise is interested in supervising doctoral research students in the following areas:

  • Measurement and valuation of healthcare benefits/outcomes
  • Evaluation of interventions and services in sexual and reproductive health/public health
  • Evaluation of interventions and services aiming to improve women’s health.

Current PhD Students:

  • Nafsika Afentou
  • Temitope Ladi-Akinyemi
  • Lacina Traore

Former PhD Students:


Research themes:

  • Capturing the full range of costs and benefits of services and interventions
  • Economic evaluation in public health/sexual health and women’s health
  • Economics of digital health

Research activity:

Louise’s research is concerned with developing the methodology of economic evaluation to ensure that the benefits of healthcare interventions are more fully captured.

Louise is involved in leading economic evaluations in the areas of public health, sexual health and women’s reproductive health. She has been a co-applicant on a number of grant-funded projects in these areas. She has also carried out methodological research exploring the methods used to measure outcomes in relation to interventions in sexual health.  

Louise is currently the principal investigator (PI) on an NIHR funded project exploring the impacts of remote consultations in sexual and reproductive health in the UK - The CONNECT Study. The study involves a mixed methods analysis using three case study areas (Birmingham, London and South West Wales).

Other activities

Association member:

  • Health Economists’ Study Group (HESG)
  • International Health Economics Association (iHEA)

Editorial board member:

  • Sexually Transmitted Infections (BMJ Journals)


Ross, JDC, Brittain C, Watkins JA, Kai J, David M, Ozolins M, Jackson L. et al. (2023) Intravaginal lactic acid gel versus oral metronidazole for treating women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis: the VITA randomised controlled trial. BMC Women's Health 23, 1 (2023): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-023-02303-5

Mackenzie SC, Stephen J, Williams L, Daniels J, Norrie J, Becker CM, Byrne D, Cheong Y, Clark TJ, Kevin G. Cooper, Cox E, Doust AM, Fernandez P, Hawe J, Holland, Hummelshoj L, Jackson LJ et al. (2023) Effectiveness of laparoscopic removal of isolated superficial peritoneal endometriosis for the management of chronic pelvic pain in women (ESPriT2): protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Trials. 24, 425. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-023-07386-x 

Newby K, Kwah, K, Schumacher L, Crutzen R, Bailey J, Jackson LJ, Bremner S (2023) An Intervention to Increase Condom Use Among Users of STI Self-Sampling Websites (Wrapped): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial. JMIR Research Protocols. https://www.researchprotocols.org/2023/1/e43645

Schnitzler L, Paulus A, Evers S, Roberts T, Jackson L. (2023) Expert opinion on a consensus-based checklist for the quality appraisal of cost-of-illness (COI) studies: qualitative interviews. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 

Ayinde O, Jackson LJ, Ross J (2023) STI testing and subsequent clinic attendance amongst test negative asymptomatic users of an internet STI testing service; one-year retrospective study. PLOS ONE. 18(2): e0281359. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0281359

Schnitzler L Roberts T, Jackson L, Paulus A, Evers S. (2022) A consensus-based checklist for the quality appraisal of cost-of-illness (COI) studies [COI-checklist] International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 

Schnitzler L, Paulus AT, Roberts TE, Evers SM, Jackson LJ. (2023) Exploring the wider societal impacts of sexual health issues and interventions to build a framework for research and policy: a qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with experts in OECD member countries. BMJ Open. 13(1):e066663. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/13/1/e066663

Haydock R, Hepburn T, Ross J, Daniels J, Brittain C, Jackson L, Ozolins M, Wilson J. (2022) The DEVA trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of dequalinium chloride versus usual care antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Trials. 23(1):1-1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13063-022-06954-x

Avşar TS, Jackson L, Barton P, Jones M, McLeod H. (2022) Supporting pregnant women who are not ready to quit smoking: An economic evaluation. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 22, 865 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-022-05150-8

Gibbs J, Howarth A, Jackson L, Sherringham J, Wong G, Burns F. (2022) Assessing the impact of online postal self-sampling for sexually transmitted infections on health inequalities, access to care and clinical outcomes in the UK: protocol for ASSIST, a realist evaluation. BMJ Open. 12:e067170. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/12/e067170.full

Schnitzler L, Evers S, Jackson LJ, Paulus A, Roberts TE. (2022) Are intersectoral costs considered in economic evaluations of interventions relating to sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? A systematic review. BMC Public Health 22:2180. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-14484-z

Uzoegbo S, Bloch S, Jackson LJ (2022) A systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations of schistosomiasis interventions. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.  e0010822. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010822

GibbsJ, SolomonD, JacksonL, MullickS, Burns F, Shahmanesh M (2022) ‘Measuring and evaluating sexual health in the era of digital health: challenges and opportunities.’ Sexual Health. https://doi.org/10.1071/SH22068

Subramanian A, Nirantharakumar K, Hughes S, Myles PR, Williams T, Gokhale K, Taverner T, Chandan J, Brown K, Simms-Williams N, Shah A, Singh M, Kidy K, Okoth K, Hotham R, Bashir N, Cockburn N, Lee S, Turner G, Gkoutos G, Aiyegbusi OL, McMullan C, Denniston A, Sapey E, Lord J, Wraith D, Leggett E, Iles C, Marshall T, Price M, Marwaha S, Haf Davies E, Jackson L, Matthews K, Camaradou J, Calvert M, Haroon S (2022) Symptoms and risk factors for long COVID in non-hospitalised adults. Nature Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-022-01909-w

Stone N, Bedford R, Newby K, Brown K, Jackson L, Bremner S, Morrison L, Mcgrath N, Nadarzynski T, Bayley J, Perry N, Graham C (2022) Reducing new chlamydia infection among young men by promoting correct and consistent condom use: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols. In Press.

O'Doherty L, Carter G, Lutman-White E, Caswell R, Jackson LJ, Feder G, Heron J, Morris R, Brown K (2022) Multi-disciplinary Evaluation of Sexual Assault Referral Centres (SARCs) for better Health (MESARCH): protocol for a 1-year cohort study examining health, well-being and cost outcomes in adult survivors of sexual assault attending SARCs in England. BMJ Open, 12.5: e057449. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/5/e057449

Melyda, Gondhowiardjo S, Jackson LJ, Oppong R (2022) Planning human resources and facilities to achieve Sustainable Development Goals: a decision-analytical modelling approach to predict cancer control requirements in Indonesia. BMJ Open,: e059555.  https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/5/e059555

Avşar TS, Jackson L, Barton P, Jones M, McLeod H (2022) Towards optimum smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy: a household model to explore cost-effectiveness. Addiction, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.15955

Hughes SE, Haroon S, Subramanian A, McMullan C, Aiyegbusi OL, Turner GM, Jackson L et al. (2022) Development and validation of the symptom burden questionnaire for long covid (SBQ-LC): Rasch analysis. BMJ  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.01.16.22269146v1

Haroon S, Nirantharakumar K, Hughes SE and Subramanian A, Aiyegbusi OL, Davies EH, Myles P, Williams T, Turner G, Chandan JS, McMullan C, Lord J, Wraith DC, McGee K, Denniston AK, Taverner T, Jackson LJ …et al. (2022) Therapies for Long COVID in non-hospitalised individuals: from symptoms, patient-reported outcomes and immunology to targeted therapies (The TLC Study). BMJ Open, 2.4: e060413 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-060413

Armstrong-Buisseret L, Brittain C, Kai J, David M, Anstey Watkins J, Ozolins M, Jackson L, Abdali Z, Hepburn T, Griffiths F, Montgomery A, Daniels J, Ross JD (2022) Lactic acid gel versus metronidazole for recurrent bacterial vaginosis in women aged 16 years and over: the VITA RCT. Health Technology Assessment 26.2  https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/hta/ZZKH4176#/abstract

Jiang X, Jackson LJ, Syed MA, Avsar TS, Abdali Z. (2022) Economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Addiction https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.15821

Kyte D, Anderson N, Bishop J, Bissell A, Brettell E, Calvert M, Chadburn M, Cockwell P, Dutton M, Eddington, H, Forster E, Hadley G, Ives NJ, Jackson LJ,…  et al. (2022) Results of a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial exploring the use of an electronic patient-reported outcome measure in the management of UK patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. BMJ Open 12: e050610. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/3/e050610

Watson SI, Asamane E, Lilford R, Hemming K, Sidibe C, Rego RT, Bensassi S, Diarra A, Diarra Y, Diop S, Gautam OP, Islam MS, Jackson L, Jolly K, Manaseki-Holland S. (2022) Protocol for a cluster randomised trial to evaluate a community-level complementary-food safety and hygiene and nutrition intervention in Mali: The MaaCiwara study.

Schnitzler L, Jackson LJ, Paulus AT, Roberts TE, Evers SM (2021). Intersectoral costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV: a systematic review of cost-of-illness (COI) studies. BMC Health Services Research. 21.1: 1-10 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12913-021-07147-z

Avşar TS, Jackson L, McLeod H. (2021) Potential for health economics to influence policies on tobacco use during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries: a qualitative case study. BMJ Open 11:e045624 https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/12/e045624

Fulton EA, Newby K, Kwah K, Schumacher L, Gokal K, Jackson LJ, Naughton F, Coleman T, Owen A, Brown KE (2021) A digital behaviour change intervention to increase booking and attendance at Stop Smoking Services: the MyWay feasibility RCT. Public Health Research; 9(5)  https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/phr/phr09050#/abstract

Jackson, L., Al-Janabi, H., Roberts, T., & Ross, J. (2021). Exploring young people's preferences for STI screening in the UK: A qualitative study and discrete choice experiment. Social Science & Medicine, 279, 113945. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.113945

Siu J, Jackson LJ, Bensassi S, Manjang B, Manaseki‐Holland S. (2021) Cost‐effectiveness of a weaning food safety and hygiene programme in rural Gambia. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 26(12), pp.1624-1633. 

Schnitzler L, Janssen LM, Evers SM, Jackson LJ, Paulus AT, Roberts TE, & Pokhilenko I. (2021). The broader societal impacts of COVID-19 and the growing importance of capturing these in health economic analyses. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 37, e43, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0266462321000155

Bloch, S. C., Jackson, L. J., Frew, E., & Ross, J. D. (2021). Assessing the costs and outcomes of control programmes for sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review of economic evaluations. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 0:1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ sextrans-2020-054873

Manaseki-Holland, S., Manjang, B., Hemming, K., Martin, J.T., Bradley, C., Jackson, L., Taal, M., Gautam, O.P., Crowe, F., Sanneh, B. and Ensink, J., 2021. Effects on childhood infections of promoting safe and hygienic complementary-food handling practices through a community-based programme: A cluster randomised controlled trial in a rural area of The Gambia. PLoS medicine, 18(1), p.e1003260.

Fulton E, Newby K, Kwah K, Schumacher L, Gokal K, Jackson LJ, Naughton F, Coleman T, Owen A, Brown K (2021) A Web-Based Behaviour Change Intervention with E-Referral System to Increase Attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services (The Myway Project): A Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of StopAppTM. Public Health Research (PHR). Volume: 9, Issue: 5 https://doi.org/10.3310/phr09050

Avşar TS, McLeod H, Jackson L. (2021) Health outcomes of smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period: an umbrella review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1), 1-9.

Armstrong-Buisseret L, Brittain C, David M, Dean G, Griffiths F, Hepburn T, Jackson L, Kai J, Montgomery A, Roberts T, Thandi S. (2019) Metronidazole versus lactic acid for treating bacterial vaginosis (VITA): protocol for a randomised controlled trial to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of topical lactic acid gel for treating second and subsequent episodes of bacterial vaginosis. Trials, 20(1), pp.1-12.

Lorimer K, DeAmicis L, Dalrymple J, Frankis J, Jackson L, Lorgelly P, McMillan L & Ross J (2019) ‘A Rapid Review of Sexual Wellbeing Definitions and Measures: Should We Now Include Sexual Wellbeing Freedom?’ The Journal of Sex Research, 1-11. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00224499.2019.1635565

Ross JDC, Brittain C, Cole M, Dewsnap C, Harding J, Hepburn T, Jackson L, Keogh M, Lawrence T, Montgomery AA, Roberts TE, Sprange K, Tan W, Thandi S, White J, Wilson J, Duley L, on behalf of the G-ToG Trial Team (2019) ‘Gentamicin compared with Ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea: a randomised trial (G-ToG Trial)’ Lancet, 393 (10190): 2511-2520. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673618328174

Fulton E, Newby K, Gokal K, Kwah K, Schumacher L, Jackson LJ, Naughton F, Coleman T, Borwn K (2019) Tailored digital behaviour change intervention with e-referral system to increase attendance at NHS stop smoking services (the MyWay project): study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial. BMJ Open; 9:e028721. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028721 https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/4/e028721

Ross J, Harding J, Duley L, Montgomery A, Hepburn T,  Tan W, Brittain C, Meakin G,  Sprange K, Thandi S, Jackson LJ, et al. (2019) A randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical effectiveness and safety of gentamicin and ceftriaxone in the treatment of gonorrhoea (The G-TOG Trial). Health Technology Assessment, 23(20). https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/hta/hta23200#/abstract

Pallan M, Griffin T, Hurley K, Lancashire E, Blisset J, Frew E, Griffith L, Hemming K, Jolly K, Mcgee E, Thompson J, Jackson L, Gill P, Parry J & Adab P (2019) Cultural adaptation of a children's weight management programme: the CHANGE intervention development and feasibility study. Health Technology Assessment, 23 (33).   https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/hta/hta23330#/abstract

Grand TS, Basarir H, Jackson LJ (2018) ‘The cost-effectiveness of oral contraceptives compared to 'no hormonal treatment' for endometriosis-related pain: An economic evaluation’. PLOS ONE, 14(1): e0210089. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353094/

McLoughlin C, Roberts TE, Jackson LJ, et al. (2018) ‘Cost-effectiveness of cell salvage and donor blood transfusion during caesarean section: results from a randomised controlled trial.’ BMJ Open ;9:e022352. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022352 https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/2/e022352

Pallan M, Hurley KL, Griffin T, Lancashire E, Blissett J, Frew E, Gill P, Hemming K, JacksonL et al. (2018) A cluster-randomised feasibility trial of a children’s weight management programme: the Child weigHt mANaGement for Ethnically diverse communities (CHANGE) study. Pilot and Feasibility studies. 4:175. https://pilotfeasibilitystudies.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40814-018-0373-6

Uthman RT, Sutton AJ, Jackson LJ, & Uthman OA (2018). Does directly administered antiretroviral therapy represent good value for money in sub-Saharan Africa? A cost-utility and value of information analysis. PLOS ONE, 13(1), e0191465.  https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191465

Gurung B, Jackson LJ,  Monahan M, Butterworth R, Roberts TE (2018) Identifying and assessing the benefits of interventions for postnatal depression: a systematic review of economic evaluations. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 18(1), p.179. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-1738-9

Khan K, Moore P, Wilson M, Hooper R, Allard S, Wrench I, Roberts T, McLoughlin C, Beresford L, Geoghegan J, Daniels J, Catling S, Clark V, Ayuk P, Robson S, Gao-Smith F, Hogg M, Jackson LJ, Lanz D, Dodds J. (2018) ‘A Randomised Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation of Intra-Operative Cell Salvage during Caesarean Section in Women at Risk of Haemorrhage: The SALVO Trial (cell SALVage in Obstetrics).  Health Technology Assessment 22(2), 1-114. https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/hta/hta22020#/abstract

Kyte D, Bishop J, Brettell E, Calvert M, Cockwell P, Dutton M, Eddington H, Hadley G, Ives NJ, Jackson LJ, Stringer S, Valente M (2018) ‘Use of an electronic patient-reported outcome measure in the management of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: the RePROM pilot trial protocol’. BMJ Open 2018;8:e026080. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/10/e026080

Ogwulu, C, Jackson LJ, Kinghorn P and Roberts T (2017) 'A Systematic Review of the Techniques Used to Value Temporary Health States.' Value in Health. 20(8): 1180-1197.

Rogozińska E, Marlin N, Jackson L, et al.  (2017) ‘Effects of antenatal diet and physical activity on maternal and fetal outcomes: Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation'. Health Technology Assessment 21.41: 1-194. https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/hta/hta21410#/abstract

Rogozińska E, Marlin N, Betrán AP, …Jackson L, Barton P, Molyneaux E, Martin AA, Rayanagoudar G, Ruifrok AE, Roberts T, de Groot CJ, Coomarasamy A, Mol BW, Zamora J, Khan KS, Riley RD, Thangaratinam S. ‘Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes: meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials.’ BMJ 2017; 358 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j3119

Sutton A, Roberts T, Jackson LJ, Saunders J, White P, Birger R, Estcourt C. (2017) ‘Cost-effectiveness of microscopy of urethral smears for asymptomatic Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis in men in England.’ International Journal of STD & AIDS, 0956462417717651.

Jackson LJ, Roberts TE. (2016) ‘Measuring health and quality of life for women undergoing testing and screening for chlamydia: a systematic review’. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 43: 152-164.

Estcourt CS, Sutcliffe LJ, Mercer CH, Copas AJ, Saunders J, Fuller SS, Roberts TE, Jackson LJ , Sutton AJ, White P, Rait G, Johnson AM, Hart GJ, Muniina P and Cassell JA (2016) ‘The Ballseye Programme: a mixed methods programme of research to improve the sexual health of men in the UK.’ Programme Grants for Applied Research, 4(20): 1-142.

Jackson LJ and Roberts TE (2015) ‘Conceptualising quality of life outcomes for women participating in testing for sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research to inform economic evaluation.’ Social Science & Medicine, 143: 162-170.

Ogwulu C, Jackson LJ, Heazell AEP, Roberts TE (2015) ‘Exploring the intangible costs associated with stillbirth: a structured review and synthesis of the evidence.’ BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15(1): 188. 

Estcourt CS, Sutcliffe LJ, Mercer CH, Copas AJ, Muniina, P, Rait, G, Symonds M, Greaves L, Aderogba K, Traynor D, Roberts TE, Jackson LJ , Creighton S, Huckle, G, Johnson AM, Cassell JA (2015) ‘Developing and testing Accelerated Partner Therapy for partner notification for people with genital chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial.’ Sexually Transmitted Infections, 91: 548-554.

Jackson LJ,  Roberts TE, Fuller SS, Sutcliffe LJ, Saunders J, Copas AJ, Mercer CH, Cassell JA, Estcourt CS (2015) ‘Exploring the cost-effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football club settings. Preliminary cost-consequence analysis of the SPORTSMART pilot randomised controlled trial.’ Sexually Transmitted Infections, 91: 100-105.

Fuller SS, Mercer CH, Copas AJ, Saunders J, Sutcliffe LJ, Cassell JA, Hart GJ, Johnson AM, Roberts TE, Jackson LJ, Muniina P, Estcourt CS (2015) ‘The SPORTSMART STUDY: a pilot randomised controlled trial of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football club settings’. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 91: 106-110.

Jackson LJ., Auguste P, Low N, & Roberts TE (2014). ‘Valuing the health states associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infections and their sequelae: a systematic review of economic evaluations and primary studies.’ Value in Health, 17(1), 116-130.

Whatley V, Jackson L, Taylor J (2012) ‘Improving public perceptions around cleanliness and health care associated infection in hospitals (service improvement)’. Journal of Infection Prevention, 13: 192-199.