Professor Simon Bach BMedSci (Hons) MB BS MD FRCS (Gen.)

Professor Simon Bach

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences
Professor of Colorectal Surgery / Head of Section - Surgery
Clinical Lead D3B Early Phase Trials Unit, CRUK Clinical Trials Unit
Consultant Colorectal Surgeon, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham

Contact details

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences
Office 11, D3B, Fifth Floor East
Institute of Translational Medicine, Heritage Building
Mindelsohn Way
Birmingham B15 2TH

I am Professor of Colorectal Surgery at University of Birmingham and Honorary Consultant Colorectal Surgeon at University Hospitals Birmingham. I am section lead for surgery, deputy director of the Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit and clinical lead for the D3B [Drugs, Devices, Diagnostics & Biomarkers] clinical trials team at the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham. 

I trained at Newcastle upon Tyne, Christie Hospital Manchester, John Radcliffe Hospital Oxford before joining the Colorectal Surgical Society of Australia and New Zealand training program at St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne developing expertise in minimally invasive colorectal cancer treatment. 

I am Director for the Royal College of Surgeons of England RADAR research initiative [Robotic and digital surgery]. RADAR provides a focal point for exchange between surgical innovators and key stakeholders including global industry. I previously led colorectal surgery at RCS (Eng) (2013-19) and chaired the National Cancer Research Institute Colorectal Cancer surgical group (2011-2018). 

I am chief investigator for Cancer Research UK TREC, STAR-TREC phase II  and STAR-TREC phase III studies recruiting in UK, the Netherlands, Sweden and Belgium; developing state-of-the-art organ saving outpatient treatment for rectal cancer instead of major surgery and a stoma. I am also chief investigator for MASTERY; a pan specialty robotics research network across 15 UK hospitals using machine learning to analyse robotics systems data from cancer surgeries to harmonise surgical practice, improve the efficiency of surgical training and avoid poor technical performance responsible for patient morbidity and mortality.



  • Aug 2006 FRCS (General Surgery Intercollegiate Board)
  • Jan 2003 Doctor of Medicine (University of Manchester)
  • May 1997 FRCS (RCS England)
  • July 1992 MB BS (University of Newcastle upon Tyne)
  • June 1989 Bachelor of Medical Sciences (Hons)



1. Clinical lead D3B (drugs, devices, diagnostics and biomarkers) early phase clinical trials unit UHB/UoB

2. Deputy Director CRUK trials unit Birmingham.

3. Chair National Cancer Research Institute surgical subgroup colorectal cancer

4. Royal College of Surgeons (Eng) research lead for colorectal surgery

5. Chief investigator international STAR-TREC study.


7. DMEC MRC ICON 8 study & FP7 eSMART

8. Birmingham NIHR BRC operations group

9. Birmingham ECMC management group

10. Perioperative Medicine Clinical Trials Network working group


  1. Gilbert A, Homer V, Brock K, Korsgen S, Geh I, Hill J, Gill T, Hainsworth P, Tutton M, Khan J, Robinson J, Steward M, Cunningham C, Kaur M, Magill L, Russell A, Quirke P, West N, Sebag-Montefiore D, Bach SP. Quality of life outcomes in older patients with early-stage rectal cancer receiving organ preserving treatment using short course, hypofractionated radiotherapy followed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TREC): Non-randomised registry of patients unsuitable for total mesorectal excision. Lancet Healthy Longevity (in press 2022).
  2. CReST Collaborative. Colorectal Endoscopic Stenting Trial (CReST) for obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer: randomized clinical trial. BJS (in press 2022).
  3. HART Collaborative. Incisional hernia following colorectal cancer surgery according to suture technique: Hughes Abdominal Repair Randomized Trial (HART). BJS (in press 2022).
  4. Rutger CH Stijns M, Jeroen Leijtens, Eelco de Graaf, Simon P Bach, Geerard Beets, Andre JA Bremers, Regina GH Beets-Tan, Johannes HW de Wilt. Endoscopy and MRI for restaging early rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment. Colorectal Disease (in press 2022).
  5. Harji D, Houston F, Burke J, Griffiths B, Tilney H, Misckovic D, Evans C, Khan J, Soomro N, Bach SP. The current status of robotic colorectal surgery training programmes. J Robotic Surg (2022).
  6. Simon P Bach, Johannes H.W. de Wilt, Femke Peters, Karen-Lise Garm Spindler, Ane L Appelt, Mark Teo, Victoria Homer, Natalie Louise Abbott, Ian Geh, Stephan Korsgen, Issam Al-Najami, Anouk J.M. Rombouts, Peter Christensen, Alexandra Gilbert, Leyre Navarro-Nuñez, Philip Quirke, Nicholas West, Gunnar Baatrup, Corrie Marijnen, David Sebag-Montefiore, and STAR-TREC Collaborative Group. STAR-TREC phase II: Can we save the rectum by watchful waiting or transanal surgery following (chemo)radiotherapy versus total mesorectal excision for early rectal cancer? Journal of Clinical Oncology 2022 40:16, 3502.
  7. NIHR Unit on Global Surgery. Alcoholic chlorhexidine skin preparation or triclosan-coated sutures to reduce surgical site infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of high-quality randomised controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis 2022 May 26; S1473-3099(22)00133-5. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00133-5.
  8. Alexandra M Zaborowski, Ahmed Abdile, Michel Adamina, Felix Aigner, Laura D'Allens, Caterina Allmer, Andrea Alvarez, Rocio Anula, Mihailo Andric, Sam Atallah, Simon Bach et al. Impact of microsatellite status in early-onset colorectal cancer. BJS 2022.
  9. STAR-TREC Collaborative. Can we Save the rectum by watchful waiting or TransAnal surgery following (chemo)Radiotherapy versus Total mesorectal excision for early REctal Cancer (STAR-TREC)? Protocol for the international, multicentre, rolling phase II/III partially randomised patient preference trial evaluating long course concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus short course radiotherapy organ preservation approaches. Colorectal Disease 2022 May;24(5):639-651. doi: 10.1111/codi.16056.

10. Hudson EM, Noutch S, Brown S, Adapala R, Bach SP, Burnett C, Burrage A, Gilbert A, Hawkins M, Howard D, Jefford M, Kochhar R, Saunders M, Seligmann J, Smith A, Teo M, Webb EJ, Webster A, West N, Sebag-Montefiore D, Gollins S, Appelt AL. A Phase II trial of Higher RadiOtherapy Dose In The Eradication of early rectal cancer (APHRODITE): protocol for a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2022 Apr 28;12(4): e049119. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049119.

11. REACCT Collaborative. Characteristics of early-onset versus late-onset colorectal cancer: a review. JAMA Surg. 2021 Sep 1;156(9):865-874. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2021.2380. PMID: 34190968

12. Emmanouil Fokas, Ane Appelt, Robert Glynne-Jones, Geerard Beets, Rodrigo Perez, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Eric Rullier, J. Joshua Smith, Corrie Marijnen, Femke Peters, Maxime van der Valk, R Beets-Tan, Arthur Sun Myint, Jean-Pierre Gerard, Simon Bach, Michael Ghadimi, Ralf-Dieter Hofheinz, Krzysztof Bujko, Cihan Gani, Karin Haustermans, Bruce Minsky, Ethan Ludmir, Nicholas West, Maria Antonietta Gambacorta, Vincenzo Valentini, Marc Buyse, Andrew Renehan, Alexandra Gilbert, David Sebag-Montefiore, and Claus Rödel. International consensus recommendations on key outcome measures of organ preservation after (chemo-)radiotherapy in rectal cancer. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology. 2021 Dec;18(12):805-816. doi: 10.1038/s41571-021-00538-5.

13. SupPoRtive Exercise Programmes for Accelerating REcovery after major ABdominal Cancer surgery trial (PREPARE-ABC): pilot phase of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Colorectal Disease 2021 23 (11), 3008-3022.

14. SupPoRtive Exercise Programmes for Accelerating REcovery after major ABdominal Cancer surgery trial (PREPARE-ABC): study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Colorectal Disease 2021 (in press).

15. Bach SP, Gilbert A, Sebag-Montefiore D. Radical surgery versus organ preservation for early-stage rectal cancer. Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2021 Apr;6(4):263-264.

16. Bach SP, Gilbert A, Brock K et al. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and Radiotherapy in Early rectal Cancer (TREC): randomized, feasibility study comparing radical surgery versus short course radiotherapy and TEM. Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2021 Feb;6(2):92-105.

17. Goel A, Khanna A, Mehrzad H, Bach SP, Karkhanis S, Kamran U, Morgan J, Rajoriya N, Tripathi D. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. Portal decompression with TIPSS prior to non-hepatic surgery: A single center case series. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Dec 14.

18. Garfjeld-Roberts P, Glasbey J, Abram S, Osei-Bordon D, Bach SP, Beard D. Research quality and transparency, outcome measurement and evidence for safety and effectiveness in robotic-assisted surgery: a systematic review. BJS Open 2020 Oct 14;4(6):1084-99.

19. Fowler H, Clifford R, Sutton P, Watson A, Fearnhead N, Bach S, Moran B, Rose A, Jackson R, Vimalchandran D on behalf of the HiP Collaborators. Hartmann’s procedure versus Intersphincteric APE (HiP Study): A Multicentre Prospective Cohort Study. Colorectal Disease,

20. Sebag-Montefiore D, AdamsR, GollinsS, SamuelLM, Glynne-JonesR, HarteR, WestN, QuirkeP, Sun MyintA, BachSP, ParsonsP, FalkS, DhaddaAS, MisraV, BrownN, BrownG, HarrisonM, WhiteL, DugganM, LopesA, ARISTOTLE Trial Management Group. ARISTOTLE: A phase III trial comparing concurrent capecitabine with capecitabine and irinotecan (Ir) chemoradiation as preoperative treatment for MRI-defined locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). May 2020. Journal of Clinical Oncology 38:4101-410.

21. LARS International Collaborative Group. International consensus definition of low anterior resection syndrome. Colorectal Disease. 2020; 22 (3): 331-342.

22. Peters FP, Teo M, Appelt A, Bach S, Baatrup G, de Wilt JH, Camilla Kronborg J, Garm Spindler K, Marijnen CAM, Sebag-Montefiore D. Mesorectal radiotherapy for early-stage rectal cancer: A novel target volume. Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology. 2020; 21, 104-111.

23. ROCCS Collaborative and West Midlands Research Collaborative. Prophylactic biological mesh reinforcement versus standard closure of stoma site (ROCCS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2020; 395 (10222), 417-42.

24. STAR-TREC Collaborative Group. Robust Dose Planning Objectives for Mesorectal Radiotherapy of Early-Stage Rectal Cancer - A Multicentre Dose Planning Study. Tech Innov Patient Support Radiation Oncol. 2019; 11, 14-21.

25. Lee MJ, Sayers AE, Drake TM, Marriott PJ, Anderson I, Bach S, Bradburn M, Hind D, Verjee A, Fearnhead NS on Behalf of NASBO steering group and NASBO collaborators. National prospective cohort study of the burden of acute bowel obstruction. BJS Open. 2019 Jul 27; 9(7) e029235. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029235.

26. NASBO Steering Group. Malnutrition, nutritional interventions and clinical outcomes of patients with acute small bowel obstruction: results from a national, multicentre, prospective audit. BMJ Open. Jul 2019; 9(7): e029235

27. S-CORT Consortium. The evolutionary landscape of colorectal tumorigenesis. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 31 Aug 2018, 2(10):1661-1672.

28. Bowel Cancer UK Critical Research Gaps in Colorectal Cancer Initiative. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer. Gut, 01 Jan 2018, 67(1):179-193.

29. National Research Collaborative, Association of Surgeons in Training Collaborative Consensus Group. Recognising contributions to work in research collaboratives: Guidelines for standardising reporting of authorship in collaborative research. Int J Surg. 2018; 52:355-60.

30. Hewitt J, Long S, Carter B, Bach S, McCarthy K, Clegg A. The prevalence of frailty and its association with clinical outcomes in general surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2018;47(6):793-800.

31. Harji DP, Vallance A, Selgimann J, Bach S, Mohamed F, Brown J, Fearnhead N. A systematic analysis highlighting deficiencies in reported outcomes for patients with stage IV colorectal cancer undergoing palliative resection of the primary tumour. European journal of surgical oncology 2018;44(10):1469-78.

32. EuroSurg Collaborative. Body mass index and complications following major gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective, international cohort study and meta-analysis. Colorectal Disease 2018;20(8): O215-O25.

33. Rombouts AJM, Al-Najami I, Abbott NL, Appelt A, Baatrup G, Bach S, Bhangu A, Garm Spindler KL, Gray R, Handley K, Kaur M, Kerkhof E, Kronborg CJ, Magill L, Marijnen CAM, Nagtegaal ID, Nyvang L, Peters FP, Pfeiffer P, Punt C, Quirke P, Sebag-Montefiore D, Teo M, West N, de Wilt JHW, for S-TCG. Can we Save the rectum by watchful waiting or TransAnal microsurgery following (chemo) Radiotherapy versus Total mesorectal excision for early REctal Cancer (STAR-TREC study)? protocol for a multicentre, randomised feasibility study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(12): e019474.

34. Monahan KJ, Alsina D, Bach S, Buchanan J, Burn J, Clark S, Dawson P, De Souza B, Din FV, Dolwani S, Dunlop MG, East J, Evans DG, Fearnhead N, Frayling IM, Glynne-Jones R, Hill J, Houlston R, Hull M, Lalloo F, Latchford A, Lishman S, Quirke P, Rees C, Rutter M, Sasieni P, Senapati A, Speake D, Thomas H, Tomlinson I. Urgent improvements needed to diagnose and manage Lynch syndrome. BMJ. 2017;356: j1388.

35. McNair AG, Heywood N, Tiernan J, Verjee A, Bach SP, Fearnhead NS, Collaboration O. A national patient and public colorectal research agenda: integration of consumer perspectives in bowel disease through early consultation. Colorectal Disease. 2017;19(1): O75-O85.

36. Burke JR, Glasbey J, Nepogodiev D, Drake T, Blencowe N, Rooshenas L, Fitzgerald JE, Fearnhead NS, Blazeby JM, Bach S, Bhangu A. Improving communication in recruitment consultations for randomised controlled trials. The Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 2017; 99(7): 260-3.

37. ACPGBI Perianal Crohn’s Disease Group. Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland consensus exercise on surgical management of fistulating perianal Crohn's disease. Colorectal Disease. 2017;19(5):418-29.

38. ENIGMA Collaborators. Systematic review of surgical interventions for Crohn's anal fistula. BJS Open. 2017;1(3):55-66.

39. STARSurg Collaborative. Students' participation in collaborative research should be recognised. Int J Surg. 2017; 39: 234-7.

40. Gollins S, Moran B, Adams R, Cunningham C, Bach S, Myint AS, Renehan A, Karandikar S, Goh V, Prezzi D, Langman G, Ahmedzai S, Geh I. Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain & Ireland (ACPGBI): Guidelines for the Management of Cancer of the Colon, Rectum and Anus (2017) - Multidisciplinary Management. Colorectal Disease. 2017;19 Suppl 1:37-66.

41. Glasbey JC, Magill EL, Brock K, Bach SP. Recommendations for Randomised Trials in Surgical Oncology. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2017;29(12):799-810.

42. Smart CJ, Korsgen S, Hill J, Speake D, Levy B, Steward M, Geh JI, Robinson J, Sebag-Montefiore D, Bach SP. Multicentre study of short-course radiotherapy and transanal endoscopic microsurgery for early rectal cancer. BJS. 2016;103(8):1069-75.

43. Reinforcement of Closure of Stoma Site Collaborative, the West Midlands Research Collaborative. Feasibility study from a randomized controlled trial of standard closure of a stoma site vs biological mesh reinforcement. Colorectal Disease. 2016;18(9):889-96.

44. EuroSurg Collaborative. EuroSurg: a new European student-driven research network in surgery. Colorectal Disease. 2016;18(2):214-5.

45. Bach SP, Fearnhead NS. Does HubBLe spell trouble for HAL? Lancet. 2016;388(10042):311-2.

46. Bach SP, Fearnhead NS. eTHoS piles pressure on haemorrhoidopexy. Lancet. 2016;388(10058):2328-30.

47. Waage JE, Leh S, Røsler C, Pfeffer F, Bach SP, Havre RF, Haldorsen IS, Ødegaard S, Baatrup G. Endorectal ultrasonography, strain elastography and MRI differentiation of rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Colorectal Disease. 2015;17(2):124-31.

48. Waage JE, Bach SP, Pfeffer F, Leh S, Havre RF, Ødegaard S, Baatrup G. Combined endorectal ultrasonography and strain elastography for the staging of early rectal cancer. Colorectal Disease. 2015;17(1):50-6.

49. Morino M, Risio M, Bach S, Beets-Tan R, Bujko K, Panis Y, Quirke P, Rembacken B, Rullier E, Young-Fadok T, Allaix M. Early rectal cancer: the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) clinical consensus conference. Surgical Endoscopy 2015.

50. Members of the MRC Hub for Trials Methodology Research Network Workshop. Interventions in randomised controlled trials in surgery: issues to consider during trial design. Trials. 2015; 16:392.

51. Smart CJ, Cunningham C, Bach SP. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2014;28(1):143-57.

52. Leong KJ, Beggs A, James J, Morton DG, Matthews GM, Bach SP. Biomarker-based treatment selection in early-stage rectal cancer to promote organ preservation. BJS. 2014;101(10):1299-309.

53. ROSSINI Trial Investigators. The cost-effectiveness of wound-edge protection devices compared to standard care in reducing surgical site infection after laparotomy: an economic evaluation alongside the ROSSINI trial. PloS one. 2014;9(4): e95595.

54. Bach SP. Commentary on Sajid et al. Colorectal Disease. 2014;16(1):15-6.

55. ROSSINI Trial Investigators. Impact of wound edge protection devices on surgical site infection after laparotomy: multicentre randomised controlled trial (ROSSINI Trial). BMJ. 2013; 347: f4305.

56. Leong KJ, James J, Wen K, Taniere P, Morton DG, Bach SP, Matthews GM. Impact of tissue processing, archiving and enrichment techniques on DNA methylation yield in rectal carcinoma. Exp Mol Pathol. 2013;95(3):343-9.

57. Bach SP. Is tailoring treatment of rectal cancer the only true benefit of long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation? Another view. Diseases of the colon and rectum. 2013;56(2):267-70.

58. Ashraf S, Hompes R, Slater A, Lindsey I, Bach S, Mortensen NJ, Cunningham C, Association of Coloproctology of Great B, Ireland Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery C. A critical appraisal of endorectal ultrasound and transanal endoscopic microsurgery and decision-making in early rectal cancer. Colorectal Disease. 2012;14(7):821-6.

59. Leong KJ, Wei W, Tannahill LA, Caldwell GM, Jones CE, Morton DG, Matthews GM, Bach SP. Methylation profiling of rectal cancer identifies novel markers of early-stage disease. BJS. 2011;98(5):724-34.

60. D'Souza BB, Heriot A, Bach S, Beer J. Severe perineal burns. ANZ J Surg. 2010;80(9):665-6.

61. Croagh DG, Bach SP, Keck J. A rare cause of acute abdomen after proctocolectomy. Am J Surg. 2009;197(4): e41-2.

62. Bach SP, Hill J, Monson JR, Simson JN, Lane L, Merrie A, Warren B, Mortensen NJ, ACPGBI TEMS Collaboration. A predictive model for local recurrence after transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal cancer. BJS. 2009;96(3):280-90.

63. Bach SP. Developments in early rectal cancer treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2009; 4, 464-5.

64. Bach SP, Mortensen NJ. Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(24):3288-300.

65. Bach SP, Williamson SE, O'Dwyer ST, Potten CS, Watson AJ. Regional localisation of p53-independent apoptosis determines toxicity to 5-fluorouracil and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate in the murine gut. British Journal of Cancer. 2006;95(1):35-41.

66. Bach SP, Mortensen NJ. Revolution and evolution: 30 years of ileoanal pouch surgery. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12(2):131-45.

67. Renehan AG, Bach SP, Potten CS. The relevance of apoptosis for cellular homeostasis and tumorigenesis in the intestine. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15(3):166-76.

68. Bach SP, Williamson SE, Marshman E, Kumar S, O'Dwyer ST, Potten CS, Watson AJ. The antioxidant n-acetylcysteine increases 5-fluorouracil activity against colorectal cancer xenografts in nude mice. J Gastrointest Surg. 2001;5(1):91-7.

69. Bach SP, Renehan AG, Potten CS. Stem cells: the intestinal stem cell as a paradigm. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21(3):469-76.

70. Bach SP, Chinery R, O'Dwyer ST, Potten CS, Coffey RJ, Watson AJ. Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate increases the therapeutic index of 5-fluorouracil in a mouse model. Gastroenterology. 2000;118(1):81-9.

Other significant completed research outputs

  1. Steele’s Surgery. Wolters Kluwer 2021. The Malignant Polyp. Bach SP.
  2. Organ Preservation in rectal Cancer. Springer 2021. Local excision for early rectal cancers (without neoadjuvant therapy). Glasbey J, Hompes R, Bach SP. 
  3. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Colorectal Cancer, Springer 2020. Chapter 14. Local Excision of Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Treatment. deWilt H and Bach SP.
  4. ‘Future of Surgery’: Key Recommendations of the National Cancer Research Institute Surgical Oncology Initiative. Richard Shaw, Grant Stewart, Simon Bach, Nigel Bundred.
  5. GRANULE: GeneRAtiNg sUrgicaL rEcruiters for randomised trials: this teaching initiative has been adopted by the NIHR as a web-based learning package, to run alongside Good Clinical Practice Training.
  6. Improving communication in recruitment consultations for randomised controlled trials. RCS Bulletin Vol99, Issue 7. HTTP://PUBLISHING.RCSENG.AC.UK/DOI/PDF/10.1308/RCSBULL.2017.260
  7. NCRI Colorectal Clinical Studies Group annual report 2017-18.
  8. Colitis: Diagnosis and Therapeutic Strategies. Chapter 18; Trials and Complications of Ileal Pouch Surgery. Bach SP and Mortensen NJ. Falk Symposium 147, Springer 2005.
  9. General Surgery:  Principles and International Practice edited by KI Bland, MW Büchler, A Csendes, OJ Garden, MG Sarr, and J Wong. Chapter 69: Chronic Ulcerative Colitis. Bach SP and Mortensen NJ.
  10. Colorectal Cancer: Diagnosis and Clinical Management edited by C Eng and J Scholefield. Neoadjuvant therapy without surgery for early-stage rectal cancer. Pinkney T and Bach SP.
  11. Doctor of Medicine Antioxidants as Modulators of 5-Fluorouracil Therapy in Colorectal Cancer. University of Manchester, 2003
  12. Bachelor of Medical Science (Hons). Properties of Tibialis Anterior in Normal and Paraplegic Subjects. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1989

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