Professor Mark Simmons M.Eng, PhD, CEng, FIChemE

Mark Simmons

School of Chemical Engineering
Professor in Fluid Mechanics

Contact details

School of Chemical Engineering
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Professor Mark Simmons is Professor in Fluid Mechanics.

Career History

At the University of Birmingham:

  • 2012 – date Professor of Fluid Mechanics, School of Chemical Engineering
  • 2014 – 2021 Head of the School of Chemical Engineering
  • 2007 – 2012 Reader in Fluid Mechanics
  • 2005 – 2007 Senior Lecturer
  • 2000 - 2005 Lecturer


  • Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers and Chartered Engineer, 2009
  • Postgraduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, University of Birmingham, 2003
  • PhD in Chemical Engineering (supervisor Prof. Barry Azzopardi), University of Nottingham, 1999
  • MEng (Hons) in Chemical Engineering (First Class), University of Nottingham, 1995


Mark Simmons is a Chemical Engineer and Professor of Fluid Mechanics at the University of Birmingham.  He served as the Head of the School of Chemical Engineering between April 2014 – July 2021.

Mark graduated from the University of Nottingham in 1995 with a Masters in Chemical Engineering and stayed on to undertake PhD study with Professor Barry Azzopardi in the area of liquid-liquid flows of interest to the oil and gas industry.

Following graduation in 1999, Mark spent a year in the USA undertaking a postdoc position with Prof Thomas Hanratty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign before joining the University of Birmingham as a lecturer in 2000.  

Since joining the University of Birmingham, Mark has established an internationally recognised research activity in the area of multiphase processing of complex fluids, funded by UK research councils and industry.  Mark is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers and a Chartered Engineer.


Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Programme

  • Multiphase Systems (20 credits, Level H) Lectures, tutorials and laboratories on incompressible and two phase flows, colloidal systems, processing and stabilisation of emulsions and suspensions, focussing on fundamental principles. (Module co-ordinator)
  • Processing for Formulation (10 credits, level H) Processing of slurries and emulsions for use in catalysts, batteries and foods.

Postgraduate supervision

Mark has run long term research programmes employing PhD and EngD students in the following areas:

  • Mixing of complex fluids in tanks  and static mixers (EPSRC, Johnson Matthey, Unilever Port Sunlight)
  • Interfacial phenomena and turbulence in batch and inline high shear mixing devices (EPSRC & Unilever)
  • Deactivation of catalysts and kinetic models (Johnson Matthey)
  • Predicting deposition in fluid systems within gas turbines and the impact of fuel formulation (funded by EPSRC & Rolls-Royce)
  • Drop generation and interfacial phenomena in microfluidic systems in the presence of additives and surfactants (EPSRC, Procter & Gamble)
  • Development of invitro models of circulatory and gastrointenstinal flows in the human body to understand drug delivery and various health conditions (EPSRC, AstraZeneca)


Mark's research work involves flow visualisation, mathematical modelling and CFD, focused on the processing of complex and multiphase fluids in both microfluidic and large scale systems.

He uses optical imaging techniques including Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and has developed novel methods for imaging of multiphase flows, focussing on the complexity of interfacial motion during the rupture of liquid threads and jets to form drops in the presence of surfactants, and the impact of a dispersed phase upon continuous phase turbulence.   Mark has expertise in visualising flows in opaque systems using Positron Imaging Particle Tracking (PEPT) in collaboration with the School of Physics and Astronomy. 

Mark has experience of running large research programmes, including previously serving as Deputy Director of the EPSRC Programme Grant MEMPHIS (Multiscale Examination of Multiphase Physics in Flows) and through the EPSRC Programme Grant, PREdictive Modelling with QuantIfication of UncERtainty for MultiphasE Systems @PREMIERE_UKRI, both with Prof Omar Matar of Imperial College (PI) and Prof Giota Angeli at UCL. 

He has led and contributed to a number of industrially focussed research programmes including InnovateUK projects with Industrial Tomography Systems, Unilever Port Sunlight and Johnson Matthey.  He is part of the Faraday NEXTRODE project with Prof Emma Kendrick looking at the processing of next generation battery electrode materials 

Mark has graduated over 50 PhD/EngD students and has published over 170 research papers in scientific journals and over 150 conference papers.  He has written reviews and book chapters in the fields of single and multiphase flow and reaction engineering of multiphase systems. He receives funding from the BBSRC and EPSRC in these fields as well as from major industrial companies including Johnson Matthey, Unilever, Rolls-Royce and Procter and Gamble.

Other activities

  • Chair of Heads of Chemical Engineering UK (HCEUK) 2018 - 2021
  • Member of IChemE Medals Committee 2018-date
  • External Examiner for the Chemical Engineering undergraduate and Masters courses at Imperial College London, previously at Loughborough, Nottingham and Queens University Belfast
  • Elected Member of the EFCE working party on Multiphase Flow
  • Guest Member of the EFCE working party on Fluid Mixing
  • Acted as external PhD examiner for over 20 candidates at leading UK institutions
  • Member of EPSRC College since 2003
  • Treasurer of IChemE Fluid Mixing Subject Interest Group


Selected Recent Publications

1.       Ryan, D.J., Baker, M.R., Kowalski, A.J., Simmons, M.J.H., Emulsification using a “Sonolator” liquid whistle: a new correlation for droplet size from pilot-scale experiments, Chem. Eng. Sci.,

2.       Lu, Y., Kovalchuk, N.M., Simmons, M.J.H. Residual film thickness following immiscible fluid displacement in non-circular microchannels at large capillary number, AIChE J.,

3.       Machin, T.D., Wei, K., Greenwood, R.W., Simmons, M.J.H., 2018.  In-pipe rheology and mixing characterisation using electrical resistance sensing, Chem. Eng. Sci.,187, 327-341,

4.       Decent, S.P., Parau, E.I., Simmons, M.J.H., Uddin, J. On mathematical approaches to modelling slender liquid jets with a curved trajectory, J. Fluid Mech. 844, 905-916,

5.       Celani, A., Blackburn, S., Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H. 2018. Effect of Mixing Conditions on the Wet Preparation of Ceramic Foams, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 134, 1-14,

6.       Kovalchuk, N.M., Simmons, M.J.H., 2018. Effect of soluble surfactant on regime transitions at drop formation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 545, 1-7,

7.       Wood, T., Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H., 2018. Optimisation of stirred vessel geometry for the drawdown and incorporation of floating solids to prepare concentrated slurries, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 133, 70-78,

8.       Wood, T., Simmons, M.J.H., Greenwood, R.W., Stitt, E.H. 2018. Concentrated slurry formation via drawdown and incorporation of wettable solids in a mechanically agitated vessel, AIChE J. 64, 5, 1885-1895,

9.       Kovalchuk, N.M., Jenkinson, H, Miller, R., Simmons, M.J.H. 2018. Effect of soluble surfactants on pinch-off of moderately viscous drops and satellite size. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 516, 182-191

10.    Kovalchuk, N.M., Chowdhury, J., Schofield, Z., Vigolo, D., Simmons, M.J.H. 2018. Study of drop coalescence and mixing in microchannel using Ghost Particle Velocimetry, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 132, 881-889,

11.    Espinoza, C.J.U., SimmonsM.J.H., AlberiniF., MihailovaO., RothmanD., Kowalski, A.J. 2018. Flow studies in an in-line Silverson 150/250 high shear mixer using PIV, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 132, 989-1004,

12.    Story, A., Jaworski, Z., Simmons, M.J.H., Nowak, E., 2018. Comparative PIV and LDA studies of Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows in an agitated tank. Chemical Papers, 72 (3), 593–602,

13.    Kovalchuk, N.M., Roumpea, E., Nowak, E., Chinaud, M., Angeli, P., Simmons, M.J.H.  2018. Effect of surfactant on emulsification in micro-channels. Chem. Eng. Sci. 176, 139-152,

14.    Celani, A., Blackburn, S., Simmons, M.J.H., Holt, L.M., Stitt, E.H.,2018.  Formulation of ceramic foams: a new class of amphiphiles, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 536, 104-112

15.    Kovalchuk, N.M., Nowak, E., Simmons, M.J.H. 2017.  Kinetics of liquid bridges and formation of satellite droplets: difference between micellar and bi-layer forming solutions, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 521, 193-203

16.    Alberini, F., Enjalbert, R., Van Crombrugge, Y., Dapelo, D., Simmons, M.J.H.  2017. Influence of DC electric field upon the production of oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions in mm-scale channels.  Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 81, 265-276. 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2016.10.023

17.    Alexiadis, A., Stamatopoulos, K., Wen, W., Batchelor, H.K., Bakalis, S., Barigou, M., Simmons. M.J.H. 2017. Using discrete multi-physics for detailed exploration of hydrodynamics in an in vitro colon system Computers in Biology and Medicine. 81, 188-198

18.    Francia, V., Martin, L., Bayly, A.E. and Simmons, M.J.H.  2017. Agglomeration during spray drying: air-borne clusters or breakage at the walls? Chemical Engineering Science. 162, 284-299.

19.    Ryan, D.J., Baker, M.R, Simmons, M.J.H., 2017. Determination of the flow field inside a Sonolator liquid whistle using PIV and CFD. Chemical Engineering Science.163, 123-136

20.    Alberini, F., Liu, L., Stitt, E.H., Simmons, M.J.H., 2017. Comparison between 3D-PTV and 2D-PIV for determination of the hydrodynamics of complex fluids in a stirred vessel. Chem. Eng. Sci., 171, 189–203

21.    Nowak, E., Xie, Z., Kovalchuk, N.M., Matar, O.K., Simmons, M.J.H. 2017. Bulk advection and interfacial flows in the binary coalescence of surfactant-laden and surfactant-free drops, Soft Matter 13, 4616-4628

22.    Bouxin, F.P., Zhang, X., Kings, I.N., Lee, A.F., Simmons, M.J.H., Wilson, K., Jackson, S.D. 2017. Deactivation study of the hydrodeoxygenation of p-methylguaiacol over silica supported Rhodium and Platinum catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General. 539, 29-37

23.    Francia V., Martin L, Bayly A.E. and Simmons M.J.H.  2016. Agglomeration in counter-current spray drying towers. Part A: Particle growth and the effect of nozzle height. Powder Technology, 301, 1330-1343,

24.    Ramsay, J., Simmons, M.J.H., Ingram, A., Stitt, E.H., 2016, Mixing performance of viscoelastic fluids in a Kenics KM inline static mixer, Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 115 Part B, 310-324.

25.    Stamatopoulos, K, Batchelor, H.K., Simmons, M.J.H. 2016. Dissolution profile of theophylline modified release tablets, using a biorelevant Dynamic Colon Model (DCM), Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 108, 9-17,

26.    Francia, V., Martin, L, Bayly, A.E. and Simmons, M.J.H.  2016. Agglomeration in counter-current spray drying towers. Part B: Interaction between multiple spraying levels. Powder Technology. 301, 1344-1358,

27.    Tong, X., Triscari Barberi, T., Botting, C.H., Sharma, S.V., Simmons, M.J.H., Overton, T.W. Goss, R.J.M., 2016.  Rapid enzyme regeneration results in the striking catalytic longevity of an engineered, single species, biocatalytic biofilm.  Microbial Cell Factories. 15:180.

28.    Nowak, E., Kovalchuk, N.M., Che, Z., Simmons, M.J.H., 2016.  Effect of surfactant concentration and viscosity of outer phase during the coalescence of a surfactant-laden drop with a surfactant-free drop, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 505, 124-131.

29.    Francia, V., Martin, L, Bayly, A.E. and Simmons, M.J.H., 2016.  Use of sonic anemometry for the study of confined swirling flows in large industrial units, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation. 50, 216-228,

30.    Kovalchuk, N.M., Nowak, E., Simmons, M.J.H. 2016. Effect of soluble surfactants on the kinetics of thinning of a liquid bridge during drop formation and on size of satellite droplets, Langmuir,  32 (20), 5069-5077.

31.    Stamatopoulos, K., Alberini, F., Batchelor, H.K., Simmons, M.J.H., 2016. Use of PLIF to assess the mixing performance of small volume USP 2 apparatus in shear thinning media, Chemical Engineering Science, 145, 1-9,

32.    Wilkinson, S.K., van de Water, L.G., Miller, B., Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H., Watson, M.J., 2016. Understanding the generation of methanol synthesis and water gas shift activity over copper-based catalysts - a spatially resolved experimental kinetic study using steady and non-steady state operation under CO/CO2/H2 feeds, J. Catal., 337-208-220.

33.    Ramsay, J., Simmons, M.J.H., Ingram, A., Stitt, E.H., 2016. Mixing of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids using “butterfly” impellers, Chemical Engineering Science, 139, 125–141, 

34.    Clark, P.J., Forte, G., Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H., 2016. Towards 3D-Electrical Capacitance Tomography for interface detection, Johnson Matthey Technology Review. 60 (2), 164-175,

35.    Clark, P.J., Tsoligkas, A.N., Simmons, M.J.H., Robbins, P.T., Stitt, E.H. 2015. A comparison of methods for in-situ discrimination of imaged phase boundaries using Electrical Capacitance Tomography. Measurement Science and Technology. 27(2) 025401,

36.    Stamatopoulos, K., Batchelor, H.K., Alberini, F., Ramsay, J., Simmons, M.J.H., 2015. Understanding the impact of media viscosity on dissolution of highly water soluble drug within a USP 2 mini vessel dissolution apparatus using an optical Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) method, Int. J. of Pharmaceutics. 495, 362-373,

37.    Lobo, D.P., Wemyss, A.M., Smith, D.J., Betteridge, K.B., Straube, A., Salmon, A.H.J., Foster, R.R., Elhegni, H.E., Little, H.A., Pacheco-Gómez, R., Simmons, M.J.H., Hicks, M.R., Bates, D.O., Rodger, A., Dafforn, T.R., Arkill, K.P., 2015.  Direct measurement and detection of wall shear stress using a filamentous bio-nanoparticle.  Nano Research, 8, 10, 3307-3315,

38.    Champion, J., Looney, M.K., Simmons, M.J.H., 2015. Numerical modelling of multi-layer film coextrusion with experimental validation, Polymer Eng. Sci., 55, 8, 1829–1842,

39.    Wilkinson, S.K., McManus, I., Daly, H., Thompson, J.M.,  Manyar, H., Hardacre, C., Sedaie Bonab, N., ten Dam, J., Simmons, M.J.H., D’Agostino, C., McGregor, J.,  Gladden, L.F., Stitt, E.H. 2015.  A kinetic analysis methodology to elucidate the roles of metal, support and solvent for the hydrogenation of 4-phenyl-2-butanone over Pt/TiO2, J. Catal.330, 362-373, doi:

40.    McManus, I., Daly, H., Thompson, J.M., Manyar, H., Hardacre, C., Wilkinson, S.K., Sedaie Bonab, N., ten Dam, J., Simmons, M.J.H.,  Stitt, E.H.,  D’Agostino, C., McGregor, J.,  Gladden, L.F., 2015. Document Effect of solvent on the hydrogenation of 4-phenyl-2-butanone over Pt based catalysts, J. Catal. 330, 344-353,

41.    Francia V., Martin L., Bayly A.E. and Simmons M.J.H., 2015. Influence of wall friction on flow regimes and scale-up of swirl counter-current swirl spray dryers. Chem Eng Sci. 134, 399-413,

42.    Alberini, F., Simmons, M.J.H., Koutchma, T., 2015. Validation of hydrodynamic and microbial inactivation models for UV-C treatment of milk in a swirl-tube ‘SurePure TurbulatorTMJ. Food Eng. 162, 63-69,

  1. Francia, V., Martin, L., Bayly, A.E. and Simmons, M.J.H., 2015. Deposition and wear of deposits in swirl spray driers: the equilibrium exchange rate and the wall-borne residence time. Procedia Engineering: 7th World Congress in Particle Technology, 102, 831-840,
  2. Francia, V., Martin, L., Bayly, A.E. and Simmons, M.J.H., 2015. Particle aggregation in large counter-current spray drying towers: Nozzle configuration, vortex momentum and temperature. Procedia Engineering: 7th World Congress in Particle Technology, 102, 668-675,

45.    Francia V., Martin L., Bayly A.E. and Simmons M.J.H., 2015. The role of wall deposition and re-entrainment in swirl spray dryers. AIChE J. 61 (6) 1804-1821,

46.    Francia V., Martin L, Bayly A.E. and Simmons M.J.H., 2015. An experimental investigation of the swirling flow in tall-form counter-current spray dryers. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 65, 22-64,

47.    Vizcaino-Caston, I., Leech, J.T., Barberi, T. T., Goss, R.J.M., Simmons, M.J.H., Overton, T.W., 2014. Current developments on the engineering of Escherichia coli biofilms for enzymatic biosynthesis of halotryptophans, New Biotechnology, 31, S19-S20,

48.    Alberini, F., Simmons, M.J.H., Ingram, A., Stitt, E.H., 2014. Assessment of different methods of analysis to characterise the mixing of shear-thinning fluids in a Kenics KM static mixer using PLIF. Chem. Eng. Sci. 112, 152-169,

49.    Alberini, F., Simmons, M.J.H., Ingram, A., Stitt, E.H. 2014. Use of an areal distribution of mixing intensity to describe blending of non-Newtonian fluids in a Kenics KM static mixer using PLIF.  AIChE J. 60 (1), 332-342,

50.    Spencer, M., Shepherd, T., Greenwood, R.W., Simmons, M.J.H. 2013. An assessment of the influence of gas turbine lubricant thermal oxidation test method parameters towards the development of a new engine representative laboratory test method, SAE Int. J. Aerosp., 6(2), 819-827,

51.    Perni, S., Hackett, L., Goss, R.J.M., Overton, T.W., Simmons, M.J.H., 2013.  Optimisation of engineered Escherichia coli biofilms for enzymatic biosynthesis of L-halotryptophans.  AMB Express, 3(1), 1-10,

52.    Rafiee, M., Simmons, M.J.H., Ingram, A., Stitt, E.H., 2013.  Development of Positron Emission Particle Tracking for studying laminar mixing in Kenics static mixer. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 91 (11), 2106-2113,

53.    Wilkinson, S.K., Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H., Baucherel, X., Watson, M.J. 2013. A novel approach to understanding and modelling evolution of catalysts during their initial operation under reaction conditions – case study of vanadium phosphorous oxides for n-butane selective oxidation. J. Catal. 299, 249-260,

54.    Winn, M., Foulkes, J.M., Perni, S., Simmons, M.J.H., Overton, T.W., Goss, R.J.M., 2012. Biofilms and their engineering counterparts: a new generation of immobilised biocatalysts, Catalysis Science and Technology, 2 (8), 1544–1547,

55.    Al Herz, M., Simmons, M.J.H., Wood, J., 2012. Selective hydrogenation of 1-heptyne in a mini trickle bed reactor, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51 (26), 8815–8825,

56.    Simmons, M.J.H., Alberini, F., Tsoligkas, A.N., Gargiuli, J., Parker, D.J., Fryer, P.J. Robinson, S., 2012.  Development of a hydrodynamic model for the UV-C inactivation of milk in a novel ‘SurePure turbulatorTM’ swirl-tube reactor, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Tech. 14, 122-134.

57.   Mohsin, M., Uddin, J., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2012. Breakup and droplet formation in shear-thinning compound liquid jets.  IMA J. Applied. Math. 77 (1), SI: 97-108.

58.   Tsoligkas, A.N., Bowen J., Winn, M., Goss, R.J.M., Overton, T.W., Simmons, M.J.H. 2012. Characterisation of spin coated engineered Escherichia coli biofilms using atomic force microscopy. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 89 (1), 152– 160,

59.   Gabriele, A., Tsoligkas, A.N., Kings, I.N., Simmons, M.J.H., 2011. Use of PIV to measure turbulence modulation in a high throughput stirred vessel with the addition of high Stokes number particles for both up- and down-pumping configurations.  Chem. Eng. Sci., 66 (23), 5862–5874,

60.   Motsi, T., Rowson, N.A, Simmons, M.J.H., 2011. Kinetic studies of the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage by natural zeolite, Int. J. Min. Proc., 101 (1-4), 42-49,

61.   Tsoligkas, A.N., M. Winn, Bowen J., Overton, T.W., Simmons, M.J.H., Goss R., 2011. Engineering biofilms for biocatalysis, ChemBioChem., 12 (9), 1391-1395,  

62.    Al Herz, M.A., Tsoligkas, A.N., Simmons, M.J.H., Wood, J., 2011. Enantioselective hydrogenation of dimethyl itaconate with immobilised Rhodium-duphos complex in a recirculating fixed bed reactor, Appl. Catal. A. Gen., 396 (1-2), 148–158

63.    Timmis, A., Smith, D. J., Bridson, R. H., Simmons, M. J. H., Decent, S. P., 2010. The use of mathematical modelling to describe fluid flow within the colon, J. Pharm. and Pharmacol., 62 (10), Sp. Iss., 1311-1312.,

64.    Gurney, C.J., Simmons, M.J.H., Hawkins, V.L., Decent, S.P., 2010. The impact of multi-frequency and forced disturbances upon drop size distributions in prilling, Chem. Eng. Sci., 65 (11), 3474-3484,

65.    Hawkins, V.L., Gurney, C.J., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., Uddin, J., 2010. Unstable waves on a curved non-Newtonian liquid jet, J. Phys. A: Mathematical and Theoretical., 43, 055501,

66.    Decent, S.P., King, A.C., Simmons, M.J.H., Parau, E.I., Wallwork, I.M., Gurney, C.J., Uddin, J., 2009. The trajectory and stability of a spiralling liquid jet: viscous theory, Applied Mathematical Modelling 33 (12), 4283-4302.

67.    Simmons, M.J.H., Edwards, I.W., Hall, J.F., Fan, X., Parker, D.J., Stitt, E.H., 2009. Techniques for visualisation of cavern boundaries in industrial mixing systems, AIChE J. 55 (11), 2765-2772,

68.    Gabriele, A., Nienow, A.W., Simmons, M.J.H., 2009. Corrigendum to ‘Use of angle resolved PIV to estimate energy dissipation rates for up- and down-pumping pitched blade agitators in a stirred tank’. Chem. Eng. Sci. 64 (19), 4196,

69.    Mehauden, K., Cox, P.W., Bakalis, S., Fryer, P.J., Fan, X., Parker, D.J., Simmons, M.J.H., 2009. The flow of liquid foods in an agitated vessel using PEPT: Implications for the use of TTI to assess thermal treatment, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Tech., 10 (4), 643-654

70.    Motsi, T., Rowson, N.A., Simmons, M.J.H., 2009. Adsorption of heavy metals from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), by natural zeolite (clinoptilolite), Int. J. Mineral Proc. 92 (1-2), 42-28,

71.    Chung, K.H.K., Simmons, M.J.H., Barigou, M., 2009. Local gas and liquid phase velocity measurement in a miniature stirred vessel using PIV combined with a new image processing algorithm, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 33 (4), 743-753,

72.    Zhu, H., Nienow, A.W., Bujalski, W., Simmons, M.J.H., 2009. Mixing studies in a model aerated bioreactor equipped with an up- or a down-pumping ‘Elephant Ear’ agitator: Power, hold-up and aerated flow field measurements. Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 87 (3), 307-317,

73.    Ritchie, J.M., Droegemuller, P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2009. HiTRAN® wire matrix inserts in fouling applications. Heat Transfer Eng., 30 (10-11), 876-884,

74.    Marston, J.O., Hawkins, V.L., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2009. Influence of surfactants upon air entrainment hysteresis in curtain coating. Exp. Fluids. 46 (3), 549-558,

75.    Chung, K.H.K., Simmons, M.J.H., Barigou, M., 2009. Angle resolved PIV measurements of flow and turbulence fields in small scale stirred vessels of different mixer configurations. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48 (2), 1008–1018,

76.    Gabriele, A., Nienow, A.W., Simmons, M.J.H., 2009. Use of angle resolved PIV to estimate energy dissipation rates for up- and down-pumping pitched blade agitators in a stirred tank. Chem. Eng. Sci. 64 (1), 126 -143,

77.    Uddin, J., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2008. Non-linear waves along a rotating non-Newtonian liquid jet. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 46 (12), 1253-1265,

78.    Uddin, J., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2008. The effect of surfactants on the instability of a rotating liquid jet. Fluid Dyn. Res. 40 (11-12), 827-851,

79.    Marston, J.O., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2008.  Experimental evidence of non-unique solutions to a steady non-linear coating flow. IMA J. Appl. Math. 73 (4), 698-702,

80.    Neal, G., Simmons, M.J.H., Hough, J.A., Fryer, P.J., 2008. Development of Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) as a technique to determine mixing performance in a vessel with a rising free surface. Exp. Fluids, 45 (1), 3-12,

81.    Mehauden, K., Bakalis, S., Cox, P.W., Fryer, P.J., Simmons, M.J.H., 2008.  Use of time temperature integrators for determining process uniformity in agitated vessels. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Tech., 9 (3), 385-395,

82.    Fryer, P.J., Simmons, M.J.H., Mehauden, K., Bakalis, S., 2008. Validation of thermal processing using time temperature indicators as process probes. Japan J. Food Eng., 9 (1), 33-42.

83.    Marston, J.O., Seville, J.P.K., Cheun, Y-V, Ingram, A., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2008. Granular jetting from solid sphere entry into aerated and fluidised beds. Phys. Fluids 20 (2) Article 023301,

84.    Mullineux, G., Simmons, M.J.H., 2008. Influence of rheological model on the processing of yoghurt. J. Food Eng., 84 (2), 250-257,

85.    Mullineux, G. Simmons, M.J.H., 2007. Surface representation of time dependent thixotropic material properties. Food Manufacturing Efficiency, 1 (2).  Available online.

86.    Mehauden, K., Cox, P.W., Bakalis, S., Simmons, M.J.H., Tucker, G.S., Fryer, P.J., 2007.  A novel method to evaluate the applicability of Time Temperature Integrators to different temperature profiles. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Tech., 8 (4), 507-514,

87.    Tsoligkas, A.N., Simmons, M.J.H., Wood, J., Frost, C.G., 2007. Kinetic and selectivity studies of gas-liquid reaction under Taylor flow in a circular capillary. Catal. Today 128 (1-2), 36-46,

88.    Tsoligkas, A.N., Simmons, M.J.H., Wood, J., 2007. Two phase gas – liquid reaction studies in a circular capillary. Chem. Eng. Sci. 62 (18-20), 5397-5401,

89.    Tsoligkas, A.N., Simmons M.J.H., Wood, J., 2007.  Influence of orientation upon the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid flow for square channels in monolith supports. Chem. Eng. Sci. 62 (16), 4365-4378,

90.    Chung, K.H.K., Barigou, M., Simmons, M.J.H., 2007.  Reconstruction of 3-D flow field inside miniature stirred vessels using a 2-D PIV technique. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 85 (A5), 560-567,

91.    Simmons, M.J.H., Zhu, H., Bujalski, W., Hewitt, C.J., Nienow, A.W., 2007. Mixing in a model bioreactor using agitators with a high solidity ratio and deep blades. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 85 (A5), 551-559,

92.    Mullineux, G., Simmons, M.J.H., 2007. Effects of processing on shear rate of yoghurt. J. Food Eng. 79 (3), 850 – 857,

93.    Marston, J.O., Simmons, M.J.H., Decent, S.P., 2007.  Influence of viscosity and impingement speed on intense hydrodynamic assist in curtain coating. Exp. Fluids 42 (3), 483-488,

94.    Simmons, M.J.H., Jayarayman, P., Fryer, P.J., 2007. The effect of temperature upon the aggregation of whey protein and its implications for milk fouling. J. Food Eng. 79 (2) 517-528,

95.    Părău, E., Decent, S.P., King, A.C., Simmons, M.J.H., Wong, D.C.Y., 2007. Non-linear viscous liquid jets from a rotating orifice. J. Eng. Math. 57 (2), 159-179,

96.    Marston, J.O., Decent, S.P. & Simmons, M.J.H. 2006. Hysteresis and non-uniqueness in the speed of onset of instability in curtain coating, J. Fluid Mech., 569, 349 – 363,

97.    Marston, J.O., Simmons, M.J.H., Decent, S.P. & Kirk, S.P. 2006. Influence of the flow field in curtain coating onto a pre-wet substrate, Phys. Fluids 18 (11), Article 112102,

98.    Uddin, J., Decent, S.P., Simmons, M.J.H., 2006. The instability of shear thinning and shear thickening spiralling liquid jets: linear theory. J. Fluids Eng.-Trans. ASME 128 (5), 968-975,

99.    Părău, E., Decent, S.P., King, A.C., Simmons, M.J.H. & Wong, D.C.Y., 2006. Nonlinear travelling waves on a spiralling liquid jet, Wave Motion 43 (7), 599 – 618,

100.Hall, J.F., Barigou, M., Simmons, M.J.H. & Stitt, E.H., 2005. Just because it’s small doesn’t mean it’s well-mixed: ensuring good mixing in meso-scale reactors. Joint 5th International Symposium on Catalysis in Multiphase Reactors/4th International Symposium on Multifunctional Reactors, Portoroz-Portorose, Slovenia, Jun 15 - 18, 2005 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44 (25), 9695-9704,

101.Partridge, L., Wong, D.C.Y., Simmons, M.J.H., Părău, E.I., Decent, S.P., 2005. Experimental and theoretical description of the break-up of curved liquid jets in the prilling process. 6th UK Particle Technology Forum, Univ Coll London, London, England, Jun 15-16, 2004, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 83 (A11), 1267 – 1275,

102.Hall, J.F., Barigou, M., Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H., 2005. A PIV study of hydrodynamics in gas-liquid High Throughput Experimentation (HTE) reactors with eccentric impeller configurations. 7th International Conference on Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-Solid, Strasbourg, France, Feb, 2005, Chem. Eng. Sci. 60 (22), 6403-6413,

103.Hall, J.F., Barigou, M, Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H., 2005. Comparative study of different mixing strategies in small high throughput experimentation reactors. 5th International Symposium on Mixing in Industrial Processes, Seville, Spain, Jun 1-4, 2004, Chem. Eng. Sci. 60 (8-9), 2355 -2368,

104.Simmons, M.J.H., Komonibo, E., Azzopardi, B.J., Dick, D.R., 2004. Residence time distributions and flow behaviour in primary crude oil-water separators treating well-head fluids. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 82 (A10), 1383-1390.

105.Hall, J.F., Barigou, M, Simmons, M.J.H., Stitt, E.H., 2004. Mixing in unbaffled high throughput experimentation reactors. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43 (15), 4149-4158,

106.Wong, D.C.Y., Simmons, M.J.H., Decent, S.P., Părău E., King A.C., 2004. Break-up dynamics and drop size distributions created from curved liquid jets. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 30 (5), 499-520.

107.Lockett, M., Simmons, M.J.H., Kendall, K., 2004. CFD to predict temperature profile for scale up of micro-tubular SOFC stacks. 8th Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, London, England, Sep 24-26, 2003, J. Power Sources 131 (1-2), 243-246.

108.Simmons, M.J.H., Wong, D.C.Y., Travers, P.J., Rothwell, J.S. 2003. Bubble behaviour in three phase capillary microreactors. Int. J. Chemical Reactor Eng. 1 (A30), 1-14. Available online.

109.Simmons, M.J.H., Wilson, J.A., Azzopardi B.J. 2002. Interpretation of the flow characteristics of a primary-oil water separator from the residence time distribution. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 80 (A5), 471-481.

110.Langston, P.A., Burbidge, A.S., Jones, T.F., Simmons, M.J.H., 2001. Particle and droplet size analysis from chord measurements using Bayes’ theorem. Powder Technol. 116 (1), 33-42.

111.Simmons, M.J.H., Hanratty, T.J., 2001. Droplet size measurements in horizontal annular gas-liquid flow. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 27 (5), 861-883.

112.Simmons, M.J.H., Azzopardi, B.J., 2001. Drop size distributions and flow regimes in dispersed liquid-liquid pipe flow. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 27 (5), 843-859.

113.Simmons, M.J.H., Hanratty, T.J., 2001. Transition from stratified to intermittent flow in small angle upflows. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 27 (4), 599-616.

114.Simmons, M.J.H., Zaidi, S.H., Azzopardi, B.J. 2000. Comparison of laser based drop size measurement techniques and their application to dispersed liquid-liquid pipe flow. Opt. Eng. 39 (2), 505-509.

115.Simmons, M.J.H., Langston, P.A., Burbidge, A.S., 1999. Particle and droplet size analysis from chord distributions. Powder Technol. 102 (1), 75-83.

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