Dr Nikolaos Efstathiou PhD, MSc, RGN, PGCEd

Dr Nikolaos Efstathiou

School of Nursing

Contact details

Institute of Clinical Sciences
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Nikolaos is a lecturer in Nursing and leads the Clinical Health Research MRes Programme. Nikolaos is also an Adjunct Professor at the School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa.

Nikolaos is an experienced lecturer and researcher. He has published research papers in scientific journals in the fields of End-of-Life care, nursing education and Delphi Technique. He has received grants from the European Oncology Nursing Society for research and visiting research centres.

Nikolaos has a clinical background in Critical Care and maintains his clinical activity by working closely with NHS partners to undertake research and apply findings in nursing practice.


Lecturer in Nursing

  • PGCEd, Birmingham City University, 2006
  • PhD in Nursing, University of Glamorgan, 2004
  • MSc in Nursing, University of Wales, 1996
  • BNurs, TEI of Athens, 1992
  • Registered Nurse 1992


Postgraduate supervision

Dr Efstathiou's expertise in Delphi Technique and qualitative research has led to him working with research students on subjects such as bariatric surgery, male perineal trauma, voiding difficulties, depression in renal dialysis patients, labour and sepsis and maternal mental illness. He would be interested in supervising research students in the following areas:

End-of-Life care in acute care settings
Decision making in End-of-Life care
End-of-Life care for patients with Dementia

Other activities

  • Adjunct Professor, School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa.
  • Honorary contract with Connected Palliative Care (Sandwell and West Birmingham NHS Trust), Heart of Sandwell Day Hospice.
  • Peer reviewer for a range of medical and nursing journals.


Recent publications


Mentzelopulos, S, Chen, S, Nates, J, Kruser, J, Hartog, C, Michalsen, A, Efstathiou, N, Joynt, G, Lobo, S, Avidan, A & Sprung, C 2022, 'Derivation and performance of an end-of-life practice score aimed at interpreting worldwide treatment-limiting decisions in the critically ill', Critical care (London, England), vol. 26, no. 1, 106. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-022-03971-9

Orr, S, Efstathiou, N, Baernholdt, M & Vanderspank-Wright, B 2022, 'ICU clinicians’ experiences of terminal weaning and extubation', Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2022.01.016

Al-Janabi, H, Efstathiou, N, McLoughlin, C, Calvert, M & Oyebode, JR 2021, 'The scope of carer effects and their inclusion in decision-making: a UK-based Delphi study', BMC Health Services Research, vol. 21, no. 1, 752 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06742-4

Efstathiou, N, Lock, A, Ahmad, S & Davies, T 2020, 'A Realist Evaluation of a ‘single point of contact’ End-of-Life care service', Journal of Health, Organization and Management.

Hewison, A, Zafar, S & Efstathiou, N 2020, 'Bereavement support in the UK: a rapid evidence assessment', Bereavement Care. https://doi.org/10.1080/02682621.2020.1728086

Efstathiou, N, Vanderspank-wright, B, Vandyk, A, Al-janabi, M, Daham, Z, Sarti, A, Delaney, JW & Downar, J 2020, 'Terminal withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in adult intensive care units: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of perceptions, experiences and practices', Palliative Medicine, pp. 026921632093500. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320935002

Irvine, F, Clark, MT, Efstathiou, N, Herber, OR, Howroyd, F, Gratrix , L, Sammut, D, Trumm, A, Hanssen, TA, Taylor, J & Bradbury-Jones, C 2020, 'The state of mixed methods research in nursing: a focused mapping review and synthesis', Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 2798-2809. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14479

Croft, E, Clark, M, Efstathiou, N & Bradbury-Jones, C 2019, 'A focused mapping review and synthesis of a priori risk factors associated with medical misconduct', BMJ open quality, vol. 8, no. 2, e000538. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2018-000538

Al-Janabi, H, McLoughlin, C, Oyebode, JR, Efstathiou, N & Calvert, M 2019, 'Six mechanisms behind carer wellbeing effects: a qualitative study of healthcare delivery', Social Science and Medicine, vol. 235, 112382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.112382

Vanderspank-Wright, B, Efstathiou, N & Vandyk, AD 2018, 'Critical care nurses' experiences of withdrawal of treatment: A systematic review of qualitative evidence', International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 77, pp. 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.09.012

Welbourn, C & Efstathiou, N 2018, 'How does the length of cardiopulmonary resuscitation affect brain damage in patients surviving cardiac arrest? A systematic review', Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, 77. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13049-018-0476-3

Efstathiou, N & Hewison, A 2018, 'It just made me feel so desolate’: Patients’ narratives of weight gain following laparoscopic insertion of a gastric band', Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 27, no. 3-4, pp. 732-742. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14072

Kanavaki, A, Rushton, A, Efstathiou, N, Alrushud, A, Klocke, R, Abhishek, A & Duda, J 2017, 'Barriers and facilitators of physical activity in knee and hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review of qualitative evidence', BMJ open, vol. 7, no. 12, e017042. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017042

Review article

Walker, W, Efstathiou, N, Jones, J, Collins, P & Jennens, H 2022, 'Family experiences of in-hospital end-of-life care for adults: a systematic review of qualitative evidence', Journal of Clinical Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.16268

Efstathiou, N, Walker, W, Metcalfe, A & Vanderspank-Wright, B 2019, 'The state of bereavement support in adult intensive care: a systematic review and narrative synthesis', Journal of Critical Care, vol. 50, pp. 177-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.11.026

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