Emeritus Professor John Raine

Emeritus Professor John Raine

Department of Public Administration and Policy
Professor of Management in Criminal Justice

Contact details

School of Government
Muirhead Tower
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

John has been an academic member of staff at the Institute of Local Government Studies since 1979, during which time he has served two terms as Director (from 1995-2001 and from 2009-2011) as well as Director of Postgraduate Research, and Director of Postgraduate Studies. He was founder director of the University's brand-leading Public Service MBA programme and of the MSc in Public Management.

John's principal academic interests are focused on public governance especially in relation to criminal justice. He has been a member of the Criminal Justice Council for England and Wales since its inception in 2002, and he has long track record of research for the Home Office, Lord Chancellor's Department and Ministry of Justice, as well as for local criminal justice agencies, in relation to court systems and processes, police governance and accountability; and probation in particular. He is also a specialist in local government, and again has undertaken many research and consultancy projects for individual local authorities as well as for national government departments. His research leadership in the field of local authority parking enforcement resulted in him acting as specialist adviser to the House of Commons Transport Select Committee for an enquiry on the subject, and in recent years he has also undertaken considerable research on other local authority regulatory responsibilities, notably, trading standards, environmental health and licensing. He also has practical experience of local government, having served as a parish councillor (1995-2000); as a district councillor since 2000, and as a county councillor since 2013. 


  • PhD (Wales) in Social Geography, 1976
  • BA hons (Wales) Geography, 1973


Following completion of his PhD in 1976, John joined the Scientific Civil Service as an urban planning researcher at the Building Research Establishment (then part of the Department of the Environment) where he was promoted twice in three years. But the arrival of Mrs Thatcher in Downing Street signalled more difficult times ahead for research in government, so John looked for an opportunity to return to academia – but one that would satisfy his interests in applied public policy research. INLOGOV, at the University of Birmingham, was well known to him and seemed an ideal working environment for his interests; so he had no hesitation in applying for a lectureship there when he spotted a recruitment advert. He was delighted to be appointed and has thoroughly enjoyed his subsequent thirty five years there.

Although at the time of his appointment his research interests and experience were primarily focused on housing and planning, in his first year at Birmingham he was asked if he might take on a project with colleagues in the Law Faculty on the organisation of the magistrates' courts of Hampshire, to which he agreed, thereby opening a door to a new specialism for him – of judicial administration and the management and governance of court systems. The project led to many similar commissions by local court services, as well from the Home Office, and to John becoming something of a national specialist in judicial administration. 

With time, his criminal justice horizons have broadened; for example, he became involved in work on the probation service (taking on the editorship of the journal 'Vista: Perspective on Probation' and serving as a member of the editorial board for the European Probation Journal). He also undertook a major research study for the national charity Victim Support evaluating a set of pilot initiatives in introducing a witness care service at the Crown Court – the success of which led to a national roll-out. Then research opportunities arose in relation to police governance and accountability and much of his recent work has been on the advent of police and crime commissioners in England and Wales. 

In 2002 he was invited to serve on the newly established Criminal Justice Council for England and Wales – chaired by a senior high court judge and a body that provides oversight and scrutiny of new proposals and developments in criminal justice. He has served as a Council member ever since. 

In addition, he retains strong research interests in local government and public management and governance more generally. He is a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Public Administration, and has undertaken several studies of local authority regulatory functions – a subject that links well with his interests in criminal justice.  His knowledge of and interests in local government also benefit from his practical involvement as a Green councillor – from 1995 at parish level in his home area; then from 200 onwards as a district councillor; and more recently (since May 2013) as a county councillor as well.


  • MSc in Public Management – Co-Convenor of the module 'Public Management and Governance'
  • Academic Director for the East Riding of Yorkshire Collaborative masters Programme.

Postgraduate supervision

  • Supervisor for a number of PhDs on aspects of criminal justice, public management and local governance
  • Supervisor for a number of MSc dissertations


Research Interests

Governance and management in criminal justice, including inter-agency relations and accountability, police governance; local government, and particularly local authority regulatory activity.

Current and Recent Projects

Democratic accountability and police and crime commissioners.

Other activities

  • Member of the Criminal Justice Council of England and Wales (2002 to date)
  • Member of Malvern Hills District Council (2000 to date)
  • Member of Worcestershire County Council (2013 to date)
  • Chair of Malvern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (2009 to date)
  • Member of Malvern Hills Conservators (2013 to date)
  • Lay Representative on the Judicial Appointments Committee for the Recruitment of Adjudicators for the Traffic Penalty Tribunal (1996 to date)
  • Previously, member of West Mercia Courts Board (2001-2011)
  • Previously, foundation governor for Hanley Castle High School, Worcestershire (1997-2002)
  • Previously, Trustee for the Institute for Citizenship (2000-2004)
  • Previously, Member of the Process Review Board for the New Nuclear Build Programme, Health and Safety Executive (2007- 2011).
  • Organist, St James’s Church, West Malvern
  • External Examiner for Public Management Postgraduate Programmes at Nottingham, Worcester, London South Bank, Manchester, Gdansk, Aston and Christchurch Canterbury Universities (1991 to date)- Shared Services (Public Management)
  • Chair and Panellist for the Association of MBAs (AMBA) at various international and domestic business schools (2006 to date)
  • Chair of the AMBA Accreditation Panel for Moscow School of Economic and Social Sciences, (December 2012)


Raine J W (2014)  Shifting Power Dependencies in Criminal Justice: The Dual State of Centre and Locality in England and Wales, Criminal Law Review 6, 399-415.

Li J and J W Raine (2013) The Time Trend of Life Satisfaction in China, Social Indicators Research, 12, 3, 1-19

Raine J W and H Lloyd (2013) Public Management Reform and the Regulation of Private Business: Risk-Driven, Customer-Oriented and all Joined–Up? International Journal of Public Administration, 36, 10, 695-709.

Raine J W and P A Watt (2013) Budgetary Models, Motivation and Engagement in Financial Collaborations, Public Management Review, 15, 6, 878-898

Raine J W and P Keasey (2012) From Police Authorities to Police & Crime Commissioners: Might policing become more publicly accountable? International Journal of Emergency Services, 1, 2, 122-134. 

Raine J W and E Dunstan (2011) The Local Regulatory State: A Case of Double Standards? International Journal of Public Administration, 34, 3, 159-170.)

Doolan K, Child J, J W Raine and A Beech (eds) (2011) Whose Criminal Justice: The Regulatory State or Local Community? Chichester: Waterside Press, 2011. 

Raine J W and E Dunstan (2009) How Well Do Sentencing Guidelines Work? Equity, Proportionality and Consistency in the Determination of Fine Levels in the Magistrates’ Courts of England and Wales, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 48, 1, 13-3


Criminal and community justice; magistrates courts; probation; policing and community safety; local government and public service provision; Local Authority regulation and enforcement, including parking, trading standards and planning.

Alternative contact number available for this expert: contact the press office


Criminal and community justice; magistrates courts; probation; policing and community safety; local government and public service provision; Local Authority regulation and enforcement,including parking, trading standards and planning.

Alternative contact number available for this expert: contact the press office