Dr Adrian Shields MBBS, MRCP, PhD

Adrian Shields

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy
Clinical Lecturer

Contact details

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy
College of Medical and Dental Sciences
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Adrian Shields is a clinical immunologist interested in understanding the mechanisms that protect us from infections and how those systems fail in individuals with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.

His recent work has described risk factors for severe COVID-19 in individuals with immunodeficiencies and understanding the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in large cohorts of health care workers


Clinical Lecturer in Immunology

  • MCRP – 2015
  • MBBS – 2012
  • PhD in Immunology – 2010
  • BSc (Hons) in Immunobiology and Infectious Disease - 2006


Adrian studied medicine at King’s College London, undertaking an intercalated PhD in 2006 investigating non-invasive gene delivery as an approach to treat inflammatory arthritis.

He went on to undertake further research projects with Dr Mike Lunn in at the Institute of Neurology, University College London looking for novel autoantigens in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, with Dr Myles Lewis at the Department of Medical Genetics at King’s College London examining the role of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus and finally with Prof Graham Ogg at the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine in Oxford, looking at proteomic signatures in allergic dermatitis.

His medical training included placements across various South London teaching hospitals before specialty training in Clinical Immunology in Oxford and Birmingham.

Adrian currently chairs the West Midlands regional immunogenomics multi-disciplinary meeting where the results of next-generation sequencing panels for patients with immunodeficiencies are reported and interpreted.

His research interests include the cellular and molecular mechansism underlying primary and secondary immunodeficiency and assay development to understand and interpret genetic variants of unknown significance.


  • MBChB
    • Year 3 Immunology module
    • Year 2  Immunology module
  • MPharm
    • Year 2 Immunology module

Postgraduate supervision

Enquires should be directed to a.m.shields@bham.ac.uk


Research interests

  • Primary immunodeficiency
  • Secondary immunodeficiency
  • Genomic medicine in immmodeficiency
  • Immunoassay development

Current projects

  • Understanding the systemic and mucosal antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild and moderate COVID-19
  • Risk factors for severe COVID-19 in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency
  • Development of clinical and laboratory biomarkers to define the severity of secondary immunodeficiency

Other activities

  • Chair of the West Midlands Immunogenomics multi-disciplinary meeting
  • Clinical interest in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, particularly complex secondary immunodeficiency following stem cell transplantation.


Recent publications


Shields, AM, Tadros, S, Al-Hakim, A, Nell, JM, Lin, MMN, Chan, M, Goddard, S, Dempster, J, Dziadzio, M, Patel, SY, Elkalifa, S, Huissoon, A, Duncan, CJA, Herwadkar, A, Khan, S, Bethune, C, Elcombe, S, Thaventhiran, J, Klenerman, P, Lowe, DM, Savic, S, Burns, SO & Richter, AG 2022, 'Impact of vaccination on hospitalization and mortality from COVID-19 in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency: The United Kingdom experience', Frontiers in immunology, vol. 13, 984376. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.984376

COV-AD consortium 2022, 'Increased Seroprevalence and Improved Antibody Responses Following Third Primary SARS-CoV-2 Immunisation: An Update From the COV-AD Study', Frontiers in immunology, vol. 13, 912571. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.912571

Outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency in the UK group 2022, 'Outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency in the UK', Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 209, no. 3, uxac008, pp. 247-258. https://doi.org/10.1093/cei/uxac008

COV-AD consortium 2022, 'SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Responses in Individuals with Antibody Deficiency: Findings from the COV-AD Study', Journal of Clinical Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10875-022-01231-7

Lamerton, R, Marcial-Juarez, E, Faustini, S, Perez-Toledo, M, Goodall, M, Jossi, S, Newby, ML, Chapple, I, Dietrich, T, Veenith, T, Shields, A, Harper, L, Henderson, I, Rayes, J, Wraith, D, Watson, S, Crispin, M, Drayson, M, Richter, A & Cunningham, A 2022, 'SARS-CoV-2 spike- and nucleoprotein-specific antibodies induced after vaccination or infection promote classical complement activation', Frontiers in immunology, vol. 13, 838780. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.838780

Lugg, ST, Mackay, WR, Faniyi, AA, Faustini, SE, Webster, C, Duffy, JE, Hewison, M, Shields, AM, Parekh, D, Richter, AG, Scott, A & Thickett, DR 2022, 'Vitamin D status: a U-shaped relationship for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in UK healthcare workers', BMJ Open Respiratory Research, vol. 9, no. 1, e001258. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2022-001258

Shields, A, Faustini, S, Kristunas, C, Cook, A, Backhouse, C, Dunbar, L, Ebanks, D, Emmanuel, B, Crouch, E, Kroeger, A, Hirschfeld, J, Sharma, P, Jaffery, R, Nowak, S, Gee, S, Drayson, M, Richter, A, Dietrich, T & Chapple, I 2021, 'COVID 19: Seroprevalence and vaccine responses in UK dental care professionals', Journal of Dental Research, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 1220-1227. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345211020270

Faustini, S, Jossi, S, Perez-Toledo, M, Shields, A, Allen, JD, Watanabe, Y, Newby, ML, Cook, A, Willcox, C, Salim, M, Goodall, M, Heaney, J, Marcial-Juarez, E, Morley, G, Torlinska, B, Wraith, D, Veenith, T, Harding, S, Jolles, S, Mark, PJ, Plant, T, Huissoon, A, O’Shea, MK, Willcox, B, Drayson, M, Crispin, M, Cunningham, A & Richter, A 2021, 'Development of a high-sensitivity ELISA detecting IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in serum and saliva', Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1111/imm.13349

Richter, AG, Shields, AM, Karim, A, Birch, D, Faustini, SE, Steadman, L, Ward, K, Plant, T, Reynolds, G, Veenith, T, Cunningham, AF, Drayson, MT & Wraith, DC 2021, 'Establishing the prevalence of common tissue-specific autoantibodies following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection', Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 99-105. https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.13623

Faniyi, AA, Lugg, ST, Faustini, SE, Webster, C, Duffy, JE, Hewison, M, Shields, A, Nightingale, P, Richter, AG & Thickett, DR 2021, 'Genetic polymorphisms, vitamin D binding protein and vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19', The European respiratory journal, vol. 57, no. 5, 2100653. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00653-2021

Shields, AM, Brown, H, Phillips, N, Drayson, MT, Richter, AA & Richter, AG 2021, 'Health Care Professionals' Confidence and Preferences for Diagnostic Assays for SARS-CoV-2: A Global Study', Frontiers in public health, vol. 9, 569315. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.569315

Shields, AM, Faustini, SE, Perez-Toledo, M, Jossi, S, Allen, JD, Al-Taei, S, Backhouse, C, Dunbar, LA, Ebanks, D, Emmanuel, B, Faniyi, AA, Garvey, M, Grinbergs, A, McGinnell, G, O'Neill, J, Watanabe, Y, Crispin, M, Wraith, DC, Cunningham, AF, Drayson, MT & Richter, AG 2021, 'Serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 following non-hospitalised infection: clinical and ethnodemographic features associated with the magnitude of the antibody response', BMJ Open Respiratory Research, vol. 8, no. 1, e000872. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2020-000872

Cook, AM, Faustini, SE, Williams, LJ, Cunningham, AF, Drayson, MT, Shields, AM, Kay, D, Plant, T, Huissoon, A, Wallis, G, Beck, S, Jossi, SE, Perez-Toledo, M, Newby, ML, Allen, JD, Crispin, M, Harding, S & Richter, AG 2021, 'Validation of a combined ELISA to detect IgG, IgA and IgM antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild or moderate non-hospitalised patients', Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 494, 113046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2021.113046


Ebanks, D, Faustini, S, Shields, A, Parry, H, Moss, P, Plant, T, Richter, A & Drayson, M 2021, 'Cross reactivity of serological response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with viral variants of concern detected by lateral flow immunoassays', Journal of Infection, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. e18-e20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.07.020


Lamerton, RE, Juarez, EM, Faustini, SE, Perez-Toledo, ME, Goodall, M, Jossi, SE, Newby, ML, Chapple, I, Dietrich, T, Veenith, T, Shields, AM, Harper, L, Henderson, IR, Rayes, J, Wraith, DC, Watson, SP, Crispin, M, Drayson, MT, Richter, AG & Cunningham, AF 2021 'In vitro, classical complement activation differs by disease severity and between SARS-CoV-2 antigens' medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.11.22.21266681