Dr Adrian Shields MBBS, MRCP, PhD

Adrian Shields

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy
Clinical Lecturer

Contact details

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy
College of Medical and Dental Sciences
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Adrian Shields is a clinical immunologist interested in understanding the mechanisms that protect us from infections and how those systems fail in individuals with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.

His recent work has described risk factors for severe COVID-19 in individuals with immunodeficiencies and understanding the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in large cohorts of health care workers


Clinical Lecturer in Immunology

  • MCRP – 2015
  • MBBS – 2012
  • PhD in Immunology – 2010
  • BSc (Hons) in Immunobiology and Infectious Disease - 2006


Adrian studied medicine at King’s College London, undertaking an intercalated PhD in 2006 investigating non-invasive gene delivery as an approach to treat inflammatory arthritis.

He went on to undertake further research projects with Dr Mike Lunn in at the Institute of Neurology, University College London looking for novel autoantigens in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, with Dr Myles Lewis at the Department of Medical Genetics at King’s College London examining the role of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus and finally with Prof Graham Ogg at the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine in Oxford, looking at proteomic signatures in allergic dermatitis.

His medical training included placements across various South London teaching hospitals before specialty training in Clinical Immunology in Oxford and Birmingham.

Adrian currently chairs the West Midlands regional immunogenomics multi-disciplinary meeting where the results of next-generation sequencing panels for patients with immunodeficiencies are reported and interpreted.

His research interests include the cellular and molecular mechansism underlying primary and secondary immunodeficiency and assay development to understand and interpret genetic variants of unknown significance.


  • MBChB
    • Year 3 Immunology module
    • Year 2  Immunology module
  • MPharm
    • Year 2 Immunology module

Postgraduate supervision

Enquires should be directed to a.m.shields@bham.ac.uk


Research interests

  • Primary immunodeficiency
  • Secondary immunodeficiency
  • Genomic medicine in immmodeficiency
  • Immunoassay development

Current projects

  • Understanding the systemic and mucosal antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild and moderate COVID-19
  • Risk factors for severe COVID-19 in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency
  • Development of clinical and laboratory biomarkers to define the severity of secondary immunodeficiency

Other activities

  • Chair of the West Midlands Immunogenomics multi-disciplinary meeting
  • Clinical interest in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, particularly complex secondary immunodeficiency following stem cell transplantation.


Recent publications


Shields, A, Faustini, S, Kristunas, C, Cook, A, Backhouse, C, Dunbar, L, Ebanks, D, Emmanuel, B, Crouch, E, Kroeger, A, Hirschfeld, J, Sharma, P, Jaffery, R, Nowak, S, Gee, S, Drayson, M, Richter, A, Dietrich, T & Chapple, I 2021, 'COVID 19: Seroprevalence and vaccine responses in UK dental care professionals', Journal of Dental Research, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 1220-1227. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345211020270

Faustini, S, Jossi, S, Perez-Toledo, M, Shields, A, Allen, JD, Watanabe, Y, Newby, ML, Cook, A, Willcox, C, Salim, M, Goodall, M, Heaney, J, Marcial-Juarez, E, Morley, G, Torlinska, B, Wraith, D, Veenith, T, Harding, S, Jolles, S, Mark, PJ, Plant, T, Huissoon, A, O’Shea, MK, Willcox, B, Drayson, M, Crispin, M, Cunningham, A & Richter, A 2021, 'Development of a high-sensitivity ELISA detecting IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in serum and saliva', Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1111/imm.13349

Richter, AG, Shields, AM, Karim, A, Birch, D, Faustini, SE, Steadman, L, Ward, K, Plant, T, Reynolds, G, Veenith, T, Cunningham, AF, Drayson, MT & Wraith, DC 2021, 'Establishing the prevalence of common tissue-specific autoantibodies following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection', Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 99-105. https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.13623

Faniyi, AA, Lugg, ST, Faustini, SE, Webster, C, Duffy, JE, Hewison, M, Shields, A, Nightingale, P, Richter, AG & Thickett, DR 2021, 'Genetic polymorphisms, vitamin D binding protein and vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19', The European respiratory journal, vol. 57, no. 5, 2100653. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00653-2021

Shields, AM, Brown, H, Phillips, N, Drayson, MT, Richter, AA & Richter, AG 2021, 'Health Care Professionals' Confidence and Preferences for Diagnostic Assays for SARS-CoV-2: A Global Study', Frontiers in public health, vol. 9, 569315. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.569315

Shields, AM, Faustini, SE, Perez-Toledo, M, Jossi, S, Allen, JD, Al-Taei, S, Backhouse, C, Dunbar, LA, Ebanks, D, Emmanuel, B, Faniyi, AA, Garvey, M, Grinbergs, A, McGinnell, G, O'Neill, J, Watanabe, Y, Crispin, M, Wraith, DC, Cunningham, AF, Drayson, MT & Richter, AG 2021, 'Serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 following non-hospitalised infection: clinical and ethnodemographic features associated with the magnitude of the antibody response', BMJ Open Respiratory Research, vol. 8, no. 1, e000872. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2020-000872

Cook, AM, Faustini, SE, Williams, LJ, Cunningham, AF, Drayson, MT, Shields, AM, Kay, D, Plant, T, Huissoon, A, Wallis, G, Beck, S, Jossi, SE, Perez-Toledo, M, Newby, ML, Allen, JD, Crispin, M, Harding, S & Richter, AG 2021, 'Validation of a combined ELISA to detect IgG, IgA and IgM antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild or moderate non-hospitalised patients', Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 494, 113046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2021.113046

Faustini, SE, Jossi, SE, Perez-Toledo, M, Shields, A, Allen, JD, Watanabe, Y, Newby, ML, Cook, A, Willcox, CR, Salim, M, Goodall, M, Heaney, JL, Marcial-Juarez, E, Morley, GL, Torlinska, B, Wraith, DC, Veenith, T, Harding, S, Jolles, S, Mark, PJ, Plant, T, Huissoon, A, O'Shea, MK, Willcox, BE, Drayson, MT, Crispin, M, Cunningham, AF & Richter, AG 2020, 'Detection of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in both serum and saliva enhances detection of infection', medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.16.20133025

Shields, A, Faustini, SE, Perez-Toledo, M, Jossi, S, Aldera, E, Allen, JD, Al-Taei, S, Backhouse, C, Bosworth, A, Dunbar, LA, Ebanks, D, Emmanuel, B, Garvey, M, Gray, J, Kidd, IM, McGinnell, G, McLoughlin, DE, Morley, G, O'Neill, J, Papakonstantinou, D, Pickles, O, Poxon, C, Richter, M, Walker, EM, Wanigasooriya, K, Watanabe, Y, Whalley, C, Zielinska, AE, Crispin, M, Wraith, DC, Beggs, AD, Cunningham, AF, Drayson, MT & Richter, AG 2020, 'SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and asymptomatic viral carriage in healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study', Thorax, vol. 75, no. 12, pp. 1089-1094. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215414

Perez-Toledo, M, Faustini, SE, Jossi, SE, Shields, AM, Kanthimathinathan, HK, Allen, JD, Watanabe, Y, Goodall, M, Wraith, DC, Veenith, TV, Drayson, MT, Jyothish, D, Al-Abadi, E, Chikermane, A, Welch, SB, Masilamani, K, Hackett, S, Crispin, M, Scholefield, BR, Cunningham, AF & Richter, AG 2020, 'Serology confirms SARS-CoV-2 infection in PCR-negative children presenting with Paediatric Inflammatory Multi-System Syndrome', medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.05.20123117

Faniyi, A, Lugg, S, Faustini, S, Webster, C, Duffy, J, Hewison, M, Shields, A, Nightingale, PG, Richter, A & Thickett, D 2020, 'Vitamin D status and seroconversion for COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers', European Respiratory Journal. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.04234-2020

Shields, AM, Pagnamenta, AT, Pollard, AJ, OxClinWGS, Taylor, JC, Allroggen, H & Patel, SY 2019, 'Classical and non-classical presentations of complement factor I deficiency: two contrasting cases diagnosed via genetic and genomic methods', Frontiers in immunology, vol. 10, 1150. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01150

Campbell, L, Simpson, D, Shields, A, Ferry, B, Ramasamy, K & Sadler, R 2019, 'In-house age-specific reference ranges for free light chains measured on the SPAPlus® analyser', Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004563219899421

Shields, A & Patel, SY 2017, 'The primary immunodeficiency disorders', Medicine, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 597-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2017.07.011


Shields, A, Bauman, B, Hargreaves, C, Pollard, A, Snow, A & Patel, SY 2020, 'A novel, heterozygous three base-pair deletion in CARD11 results in B cell expansion with NF-κB and T cell anergy disease', Journal of Clinical Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00729-x

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