Dr Aditya (Adi) Kale BMedSci MBChB

Dr Aditya (Adi) Kale

Institute of Inflammation and Ageing
Clinical Research Fellow

Contact details

Institute of Inflammation and Ageing
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Dr Kale studied medicine at the University of Birmingham College of Medical and Dental Sciences and graduated in 2019. He completed his foundation training in University Hospitals Birmingham and Sandwell & West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trusts. Following foundation training, Dr Kale is now undertaking clinical research in the area of Artificial Intelligence (AI) safety monitoring. Following a period of pure research time, he hopes to undertake clinical training in ophthalmology whilst continuing to pursue research interests.

Google Scholar Profile of Dr Adi Kale


  • MBChB, University of Birmingham, 2013-2019
  • BMedSci (Hons) in Healthcare Leadership and Management, University of Birmingham, 2017-2018


Dr Adi Kale is a clinical research fellow at the Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham.

Since completing his degree in Healthcare Management and Leadership, with an interest in patient safety, Dr Kale has published research in the two domains of ophthalmology, and clinical Artificial Intelligence (AI) evaluation.

His doctoral research is around the monitoring of AI health technologies. He is working with Dr Xiao Liu and Prof Alastair Denniston, in conjunction with MHRA colleagues to understand how AI health technology safety monitoring should be undertaken once deployed in clinical settings.

Dr Kale has advisory roles relating to AI evaluation and regulation, and is part the team at INSIGHT, the HDR UK data hub for eye health.


Research interests
• Clinical AI safety monitoring: Detection and reporting of AI errors and patient harms
• Evaluation and regulation of AI as a Medical Device
• Diagnostic tests in Ophthalmology

Current projects
• Systematic reviews of Clinical AI errors and adverse events
• Mixed methods analysis of an AI safety monitoring framework


Recent publications


Ong, AY, Hogg, HDJ, Kale, AU, Taribagil, P, Kras, A, Dow, E, Macdonald, T, Liu, X, Keane, PA & Denniston, AK 2024, 'AI as a Medical Device for Ophthalmic Imaging in Europe, Australia, and the United States: Protocol for a Systematic Scoping Review of Regulated Devices', JMIR Research Protocols, vol. 13, e52602. https://doi.org/10.2196/52602

Martindale, APL, Ng, B, Ngai, V, Kale, AU, Ferrante di Ruffano, L, Golub, RM, Collins, GS, Moher, D, McCradden, MD, Oakden-Rayner, L, Rivera, SC, Calvert, M, Kelly, CJ, Lee, CS, Yau, C, Chan, A-W, Keane, PA, Beam, AL, Denniston, AK & Liu, X 2024, 'Concordance of randomised controlled trials for artificial intelligence interventions with the CONSORT-AI reporting guidelines', Nature Communications, vol. 15, no. 1, 1619. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-024-45355-3

Kale, AU, Mills, A, Guggenheim, E, Gee, D, Bodza, S, Anumakonda, A, Doal, R, Williams, R, Gallier, S, Lee, WH, Galsworthy, P, Benning, M, Fanning, H, Keane, PA, Denniston, AK & Mollan, SP 2023, 'A Datasheet for the INSIGHT Birmingham, Solihull, and Black Country Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Dataset', Ophthalmology Science, vol. 3, no. 3, 100293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xops.2023.100293

Liu, X, Kale, A, Ometto, G, Montesano, G, Sitch, A, Capewell, N, Radovanovic, C, Bucknall, N, Beare, N, Moore, D, Keane, P, Crabb, DP & Denniston, A 2022, 'OCT assisted quantification of vitreous inflammation in uveitis', Translational Vision Science & Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, 3. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.1.3

Review article

Kale, AU, Serrano, A, Liu, X, Balasubramaniam, B, Keane, PA, Moore, DJ, Llorenç, V & Denniston, AK 2022, 'Measuring inflammation in the vitreous and retina: a narrative review', Ocular immunology and inflammation. https://doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2022.2049316

View all publications in research portal