Dr Emma J Breeze

Birmingham Law School
Assistant Professor in International Criminal Law

Dr Breeze is an Assistant Professor in international criminal law and international humanitarian law. She is an interdisciplinary researcher focussing on technological challenges to law during armed conflict. She is interested in international criminal law, international humanitarian law, transnational criminal law and criminal law more generally.


  • PhD Law, entitled: Know Your Enemy: Implications of Technology on the Intelligence Standard for Targeting under International Humanitarian Law, University of Birmingham
  • LLM International Law, Crime, Justice and Human Rights, University of Birmingham
  • LLB Law, University of Plymouth


Dr Breeze is an Assistant Professor in International Criminal Law at the University of Birmingham. Prior to this lectureship she was a lecturer in law at Coventry University. She specialises in International Criminal and Humanitarian Law, with particular interest in technological development and intelligence studies. She completed her PhD at the University of Birmingham under the supervision of Professor Robert Cryer and Dr Alexander Orakhelashvili in June 2020. She has previously held an ESRC Impact Acceleration Post-Doctoral Fellowship to develop impact from her PhD. This resulted in a policy briefing concerning the three-fold increase in the use of drones (unmanned aerial vehicles) by law enforcement in England and Wales. She has worked with several interdisciplinary research groups, including the Institute for Global Innovation and the Centre for Crime Justice and Policing, and engaged with both academics and practitioners. Her work has featured in the Journal of Conflict and Security Law.


International Criminal Law, Criminal Law, Transnational Criminal Law, International Humanitarian Law

Postgraduate supervision

International Humanitarian Law (the law of armed conflict), International Criminal Law, Transnational Criminal Law (to include cross-border crimes, such as trafficking and piracy)
International law and global legal studies (to include conflicts, transitional justice, international criminal law)


Research into contemporary issues in international humanitarian law, particularly focussing on information and intelligence during conflict. Recent research developed an intelligence standard in targeting given the development of modern surveillance technologies. The role and scope of the precautionary principle of international humanitarian law continues to be at the heart of my current research, looking at both defenders’ obligations and the challenges presented by misinformation, deception and infiltration by hostile parties within technological decision-making systems during conflict.


Recent publications


Marchant, E 2020, 'Insufficient knowledge in Kunduz: the precautionary principle and international humanitarian law', Journal of Conflict and Security Law, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 53–79. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcsl/krz033


Breeze, E 2024, Versions of the Truth: Disinformation and Prosecuting Atrocities. in MA Drumbl & C Fournet (eds), Sights, Sounds, and Sensibilities of Atrocity Prosecutions. Studies in International Criminal Law, vol. 06, Brill.

Breeze, E 2023, Healthcare in Conflict: Legally Protected, Physically at Risk. in J Tingle, C Milo, G Msiska & R Millar (eds), Research Handbook on Patient Safety and the Law. 1 edn, Research Handbooks in Health and Medical Law, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., pp. 90-107. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781802207064.000012

Doctoral Thesis

Marchant, E 2020, 'Know your enemy: implications of technology for intelligence standards in targeting under international humanitarian law', ???thesis.qualification.phd???, The University of Birmingham. <https://etheses.bham.ac.uk/id/eprint/10911/>

Other contribution

Breeze, E 2023, Written evidence submitted to UK Parliament Artificial Intelligence in Weapons Systems Committee Select Committee Inquiry, April 2023..

Marchant, E 2020, Police Drones Treble - time for guidance..

View all publications in research portal