Dr Janine Natalya Clark

Birmingham Law School
Reader in Gender, International Criminal Law and Transitional Justice

Contact details

Birmingham Law School
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Dr Clark joined Birmingham Law School in October 2014. Her main research and teaching interests include sexual violence in conflict, international criminal courts, transitional justice, genocide and ethnic conflict. She is best known for her work on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and she recently presented her work at the Tribunal's final Legacy Conference in Sarajevo. Dr Clark's newest book – Rape, Sexual Violence and Transitional Justice Challenges: Lessons from Bosnia-Herzegovina – will be published in September 2017. She is currently working on an ESRC-funded project entitled ‘Education and Sensitization in the Fight against Sexual Violence in Conflict: Tackling Prejudice and Social Stigma in Bosnia-Hercegovina’. In addition, she has been awarded a prestigious European Research Council Consolidator Grant to undertake a five-year comparative study of resilience in survivors of war rape and sexual violence.


  • LLB (Bristol)
  • MA (Leeds)
  • PhD (Nottingham)


Dr Clark studied Law and French at the University of Bristol. After graduating with First Class Honours, she went on to study for a Masters degree in International Studies at the University of Leeds. It was during this period that she began to develop a strong interest in the former Yugoslavia, and her PhD (at the University of Nottingham) focused on the regime and trial of the former Serbian leader, Slobodan Milosević. Following the completion of her PhD, Dr Clark spent three years in the International Politics department at Aberystwyth University, first as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow (funded by the Economic and Social Research Council) and subsequently as a Leverhulme Early Career Fellow. During her time at Aberystwyth, she published her first book, Serbia in the Shadow of Milosević: The Legacy of Conflict in the Balkans . Before joining Birmingham Law School in October 2014, Dr Clark held Lecturer positions in the Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit at the University of York (2009-2010), the School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy at Queen's University in Belfast (2010-2011) and in the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield (2011-2014).

Postgraduate supervision

  • International criminal justice
  • Transitional justice
  • Rape and sexual violence
  • Genocide
  • DDR


Dr Clark is primarily interested in rape and sexual violence in conflict, transitional justice, international criminal courts (and particularly their impact and effectiveness), genocide and ethnic conflict. She is currently working on a five-year project entitled A Comparative Study of Resilience in Survivors of War Rape and Sexual Violence: New Directions for Transitional Justice. Funded by the European Research Council, the project is seeking to develop a new model of transitional justice that fosters resilience in survivors of war rape and sexual violence. It is using the case studies of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Colombia and Uganda.

Other activities

Dr Clark recently joined the government’s UK Team of Experts on the Prevention of Sexual Violence in Conflict. She was involved in the Women’s Court that took place in Sarajevo in May 2015 (see http://ijtj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/11/13/ijtj.ijv027.abstract), and she works closely with Snaga Žene, a Bosnian women’s NGO in Tuzla.


N.B. All single authored


  • Rape, Sexual Violence and Transitional Justice Challenges: Lessons from Bosnia-Herzegovina(Abingdon: Routledge, September 2017).
  • International Trials and Reconciliation: Assessing the Impact of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (Abingdon: Routledge, 2014).
  • Serbia in the Shadow of Milošević: The Legacy of Conflict in the Balkans (London: I.B. Tauris, 2008).

Chapters in Books

  • The Cross, the Crescent and the Bosnian War: The Legacy of Religious Involvement. In Sabrina Petra Ramet (ed), Religion and Politics in Post-Socialist Central and Southeastern Europe: Challenges Since 1989 (Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), pp.155-179.
  • The ‘Ambivalence of the Sacred’: Christianity, Genocide and Reconciliation in Rwanda. In Kenneth Omeje and Tricia Redeker Hepner (eds), Political Conflicts and Peace-building in the African Great Lakes Region (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2013), pp.217-234.
  • Between Theory and Practice: Conflict Resolution in Rwanda. In Stefan Wolff and Christalla Yakinthou (eds), Conflict Resolution: Theories and Practice (Oxon: Routledge, 2011), pp.187-200.
  • The Impact Question: The ICTY and the Restoration and Maintenance of Peace. In Göran Sluiter, Bert Swart and Alexander Zahar (eds), The Legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp.55-80
  • Transitional Justice in BiH: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.In Lilian Barria and Steven Roper (eds), The Development of Institutions of Human Rights: A Comparative Study (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp.83-97.

Journal articles

  • The Vulnerability of the Penis: Sexual Violence against Men in Conflict and Security Frames, Men and Masculinities (published online September 2017, see http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1097184X17724487)
  • Masculinity and Male Survivors of Wartime Sexual Violence: A Bosnian Case Study, Conflict, Security and Development 17 (2017): 287-311. 
  • Working with Survivors of War Rape and Sexual Violence: Fieldwork Reflections from Bosnia-Hercegovina, Qualitative Research 17 (2017): 424-439. 
  • Untangling Rape Causation and the Importance of the Micro Level: Elucidating the Use of Mass Rape during the Bosnian War, Ethnopolitics 16 (2017): 388-410.
  • Are there “Greener” Ways of doing Transitional Justice? Some Reflections on Srebrenica, Nature and Memorialization, International Journal of Human Rights 20 (2016): 1199-1218.
  • The First Rape Conviction at the ICC: An Analysis of the Bemba Judgement, Journal of International Criminal Justice 14 (2016): 667-687.
  • In from the Margins: Survivors of Wartime Sexual Violence in Croatia and an Early Analysis of the New Law, Journal of Human Rights Practice 8 (2016): 128-147.
  • Transitional Justice as Recognition: An Analysis of the Women's Court in Sarajevo, International Journal of Transitional Justice 10 (2016): 67-87.
  • Elucidating the Dolus Specialis: An Analysis of ICTY Jurisprudence on Genocidal Intent, Criminal Law Forum 26 (2015): 497-531.
  • International Criminal Courts and Normative Legitimacy: An Achievable Goal? – International Criminal Law Review 15 (July 2015): 763-783.
  • ‘Specific Direction’ and the Fragmentation of International Jurisprudence on Aiding and Abetting: Perišić and Beyond, International Criminal Law Review 15 (June 2015): 411-451.
  • Making Sense of Wartime Rape: A Multi-Causal and Multi-Level Analysis, Ethnopolitics 13 (July 2014): 461-482.
  • A Crime of Identity: Rape and Its Neglected Victims, Journal of Human Rights 13(May 2014): 146-169.
  • Kosovo’s Gordian Knot: The Contested North and the Imperative of Finding a Solution, Nationalities Papers 42 (April 2014): 526-547.
  • Giving Peace a Chance: Croatia’s Branitelji and the Imperative of Reintegration, Europe-Asia Studies 65 (December 2013): 1931-1953.
  • Normalization through (Re)Integration: Returnees and Settlers in Post-Conflict Croatia, International Journal of Human Rights 17 (October-December 2013): 707-722.
  • Does Bosnia Need a TRC? Some Reflections on its Possible Design, Ethnopolitics 12 (September 2013): 225-246.
  • Reconciliation through Remembrance? War Memorials and the Victims of Vukovar, International Journal of Transitional Justice 7 (May 2013): 116-135.
  • Courting Controversy: The ICTY’s Acquittal of Croatian Generals Gotovina and Markač, Journal of International Criminal Justice 11 (April 2013): 399-423.
  • Fieldwork and its Ethical Challenges: Reflections from Research in Bosnia, Human RightsQuarterly 34 (August 2012): 823-839.
  • Reconciliation via Truth? A Study of South Africa’s TRC, Journal of Human Rights 11 (June 2012): 189-209.
  • The ICTY and Reconciliation in Croatia: A Case Study of Vukovar, Journal of International Criminal Justice 10 (April 2012): 397-422.
  • The ‘Crime of Crimes’: Genocide, Criminal Trials and Reconciliation, Journal of Genocide Research 14 (March 2012): 1-23.
  • Youth Violence in South Africa: The Case for a Restorative Justice Response, Contemporary Justice Review 15 (March 2012): 77-95.
  • Reflections on Trust and Reconciliation: A Case-Study of a Central Bosnian Village, International Journal of Human Rights 16 (January 2012): 239-256.
  • Religious Peace-Building in South Africa: From Potential to Practice, Ethnopolitics 10 (September 2011): 345-365.
  • UN Peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Reflections on MONUSCO and Its Contradictory Mandate, Journal ofInternational Peacekeeping 15 (June 2011): 363-383.
  • Justice, Peace and the International Criminal Court: Limitations and Possibilities, Journal of International Criminal Justice 9 (July 2011): 521-545.
  • Transitional Justice, Truth and Reconciliation: An Under-Explored Relationship, International Criminal Law Review 11 (April 2011): 241-261.
  • Missing Persons, Reconciliation and the View from Below: A Case-Study of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 10 (December 2010): 425-442.
  • The State Court of Bosnia and Hercegovina: A Path to Reconciliation? Contemporary Justice Review 13 (December 2010): 371-390.
  • Education in Bosnia-Hercegovina: The Case for Root-and-Branch Reform, Journal of Human Rights 9(September 2010): 344-362.
  • Religion and Reconciliation in Bosnia and Hercegovina: Are Religious Actors Doing Enough? Europe-Asia Studies 62 (June 2010): 371-394
  • National Unity and Reconciliation in Rwanda: A Flawed Approach? Journal of Contemporary African Studies 28 (April 2010): 137-154.
  • The ICC, Uganda and the LRA: Re-Framing the Debate, African Studies 69 (April 2010): 141-160.
  • Bosnia’s Success Story? Brčko District and the ‘View from Below’, International Peacekeeping 17 (March 2010): 67-79.
  • Genocide, War Crimes and the Conflict in Bosnia: Understanding the Perpetrators, Journal of Genocide Research 11 (December 2009): 421-445.
  • From Negative to Positive Peace: The Case of Bosnia and Hercegovina, Journal of Human Rights 8 (December 2009): 360-384.
  • The Limits of Retributive Justice: Findings of an Empirical Study in Bosnia and Hercegovina, Journal of International Criminal Justice 7 (July 2009): 463-487.
  • Judging the ICTY: Has It Achieved Its Objectives? Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 9(June 2009): 123-142.
  • Plea Bargaining at the ICTY: Guilty Pleas and Reconciliation, European Journal of International Law 20 (April 2009): 415-436.
  • Learning from the Past: Three Lessons from the Rwandan Genocide, African Studies 68(April 2009): 1-28.
  • International War Crimes Tribunals and the Challenge of Outreach, International Criminal Law Review 9 (March 2009): 99-116.
  • The Three Rs: Retributive Justice, Restorative Justice, and Reconciliation, Contemporary Justice Review 11(December 2008): 331-350.
  • Collective Guilt, Collective Responsibility and the Serbs, East European Politics and Societies 22 (May 2008): 668-692.
  • Vojislav Koštunica – Some Reflections on His Time as Serbian Premier, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans 10 (March 2008): 31-46.
  • The Death of Milošević: Exploring the Public Reaction in Serbia, Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 7 (December 2007): 591-608.
  • National Minorities and the Milošević Regime, Nationalities Papers 35 (May 2007): 317-334.
  • Milošević and the View from Below: Exploring How He Is Seen by His Own People, Balkanistica 20 (April 2007): 1-27.