Dr Szilárd Gáspár-Szilágyi

Dr Szilárd Gáspár-Szilágyi

Birmingham Law School
Assistant Professor in EU and International Economic Law

Contact details

Birmingham Law School
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Dr Gáspár-Szilágyi is an Assistant Professor in EU and International Economic Law with an interest in international investment law, EU investment law, EU external relations, and regional economic integration. 


PhD, Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Denmark (2012-2015)

  • Thesis: The ‘direct effect’ of EU international agreements through a US lens
  • Committee: Panos Koutrakos (City University London), Lars Bay Larson (Court of Justice of the EU), Michael Steinicke (Aarhus University)

Master of Laws in International Law, Maastricht University, The Netherlands (2009-2011)

  • Award: Top 3% Award out of approx. 30 students; Grade average: 8.11/ 10
  • Thesis: Do the New Types of Model BITs Offer Better Protection to Shareholders?

Master Exchange Student, Stellenbosch University, South Africa (2011)

  • Grade average: First 

Master Exchange in International Business Law, Bucerius Law School, Germany (2010)

  • Grade average: A/ A

Bachelor of Laws (LLB), Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

  • Valedictorian; Grade Average: 9.35/10

Erasmus Exchange Student, Utrecht University, the Netherlands

  • Top 5% of students; Grade Average 8.05/10


Dr. Gáspár-Szilágyi is a Lecturer in EU and International Economic Law. Prior to his lectureship at the University of Birmingham, he worked as a Lecturer in Law at Keele University (UK), as a postdoctoral fellow at the PluriCourts Centre of Excellence at the University of Oslo (Norway), as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Amsterdam, and as a Lecturer at the Hague University of Applied Sciences. He defended his PhD in 2015 at Aarhus University in Denmark. He also holds a two-year LLM from Maastricht University (the Netherlands, top 3%) and an LLB from Babes-Bolyai University (Romania, valedictorian). He has pursued research stays and foreign exchanges at Vienna University, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, the Asser Institute in the Hague, Utrecht University, Bucerius Law School, and Stellenbosch University in South Africa. He regularly publishes on topics concerning international investment law, EU investment law, EU external relations, and regional economic integration. His publications have appeared, among others, in European Law Review, The Journal of World Investment and Trade, The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals, Common Market Law Review, European Papers, and others.


Module leadership

  • Legal Foundations of the European Union (Core UG) 2022-2023
  • International Trade Law and Policy (PG) 2021-2022
  • Preferential Trade Agreements (PG) 2021-2022


  • Legal Foundations of the European Union (Core UG) 2021-2022
  • Introduction to International and European Economic Law (UG) 2021-2023
  • International Trade Law and Policy (PG) 2022-2023
  • Preferential Trade Agreements (PG) 2022-2023

Postgraduate supervision

Szilárd is happy to supervise doctoral dissertations in the following fields:
• International trade law and regional economic integration
• International investment law and investment treaty arbitration
• European Union Law (constitutional aspects, internal market, Common Commercial Policy, External Relations)
• The Regulation of Online Trading and Investing

Szilárd is currently lead PhD supervisor for:

• Moamen Elwan, Mapping the Unchartered Waters of the Interaction Between Competition Law and Investment Law (2022 – present)
• Amos T Kofa, Understanding the Interactions between Domestic Courts and Foreign Investors and its Relations to Economic Development: A Case Study of Four African Countries (2022 – present)

Find out more - our PhD Law  page has information about doctoral research at the University of Birmingham.


My research expertise includes several areas of interest:

  • The domestic effects of international agreements in the EU and the US
  • The reform of investor-state arbitration
  • The EU’s Investment Law and Policy
  • EU External Relations Law and EU Trade Policy
  • The regulation of online trading and investing
  • Regional Economic Integration and Preferential Trade Agreements
  • Compliance with ISDS awards

Other activities

  • Editorial Board Member for the Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions(2020-present)
  • Managing Editor for the European Investment Law and Arbitration Review(2022-present)
  • External Reviewer of EU and Investment Law textbooks and monographs (2019-present) for Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, MacMillan Publishing
  • Peer-reviewer for several academic journals: European Papers, Croatian Yearbook of European Law, The Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, Állam és Jogtudomány
  • Academic Collaborator and Lecturer, Mathias Corvinus Collegium (2021-present)
  • Member of the International Economic Law and Policy Working Group, Birmingham Law School (2021-present)
  • Deputy Head of Academic Development: Research (2022-present)
  • CEPLER Coach for Client Interviewing Competition (2021-present)

Membership in professional societies

  • American Society of International Law (2013-2014)
  • European Society of International Law (2015-2017)
  • European Consortium for Political Research (2018-2019)

Previous positions

  • Lecturer in Law (Grade 8), Keele University, School of Law (2019 September – 2021 August)
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Oslo, PluriCourts Centre for the Study of the Legitimate Roles of the Judiciary in the Global Order (2016 May – 2019 June)
  • Visiting Researcher, University of Vienna, Section for International Law and International Relations (2017 September-2017 December)
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Amsterdam, Centre for EU Law and Governance (2015 November-2016 May)
  • Lecturer, The Hague University of Applied Sciences (2015 May-2015 October)
  • PhD Fellow, Aarhus University (Denmark), School of Business and Social Sciences(2012 March – 2015 February)
  • Visiting Researcher, TMC Asser Institute, Centre for EU External Relations (2014 September – 2014 December)
  • Grotius Visiting Researcher, University of Michigan Law School (2013 August – 2014 March)
  • Stagiaire/Trainee, European Commission, DG Transport and Mobility(2011 October – 2012 February)
  • Student Assistant for Professor Peter van den Bossche, WTO Appellate Body, Maastricht University (2010 April – 2010 August)
  • Paralegal, Bejenaru, Filip & Partners Law Firm (2007 February – 2007 August)


Recent publications


Gaspar-Szilagyi, S, Langford, M & Behn, D (eds) 2020, Adjudicating Trade and Investment Disputes: Convergence or Divergence? Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108766678


Gaspar-Szilagyi, S, Strain, N, St John, T, Usynin, M & Lie, R 2023, 'Compliance Politics and International Investment Disputes: A New Dataset', Journal of International Economic Law.

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S 2023, 'When the Dragon Comes Home to Roost. Chinese Investments in the EU, National Security, and BITs', Journal of International Dispute Settlement.

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S 2022, 'Does Brexit mean Brexit? The enforcement of intra-EU investment awards in the post-Brexit era', Central European Journal of Comparative Law , vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 75-95. https://doi.org/10.47078/2022.1.75-95

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S & Usynin, M 2022, 'Does the CJEU misunderstand investment treaty arbitration in Commission v. Micula?', European Investment Law and Arbitration Review , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53–75. https://doi.org/10.1163/24689017_0701004

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S & Pearson, A 2022, 'Facebook with money: the rise of online brokerage platforms and vulnerable groups', Legal Studies, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 377 - 395. https://doi.org/10.1017/lst.2021.51

Gáspár-Szilágyi, S 2022, 'The 'Palm Oil Wars' or how the EU's 'inflated' common commercial policy might need to prioritize its non-trade values', European Foreign Affairs Review, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 29-56. https://doi.org/10.54648/EERR2022003

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S 2021, 'Between fiction and reality. The external autonomy of EU law as a ’shapeshifter’ after opinion 1/17', European Papers, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 675-692. https://doi.org/10.15166/2499-8249/494

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S 2020, 'Country Report on Hungary and Romania', Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions , vol. 1, pp. 187-208. <https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/16495_2020_25>

Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S 2022, State compliance with intra-EU investment awards or the EU ‘elephant’ in the investment ‘porcelain shop'. in G Butler (ed.), Investment Treaties and the EU Legal Order: Litigation, Modernisation, and Sustainability . Swedish Studies in European Law, Bloomsbury.


Gaspar-Szilagyi, S 2022, Foreign Investors, Domestic Courts and Investment Treaty Arbitration. in D Behn, OK Fauchald & M Langford (eds), The Legitimacy of Investment Arbitration: Empirical Perspective. Studies on International Courts and Tribunals, Cambridge University Press, pp. 171-229. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108946636.009

Gáspár-Szilágyi, S & Létourneau-Tremblay, L 2020, A question of impartiality: Who are the dissenting arbitrators in investment treaty arbitration? in F Baetens (ed.), Identity and Diversity on the International Bench: Who is the Judge?. Oxford University Press, pp. 280-329. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198870753.003.0015

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S & Marton, P 2020, Foreign Investment Policy in the Post-Lisbon Common Commercial Policy; An Institutionalist Perspective. in CI Nagy (ed.), What Money Can’t Buy, What Business Can’t Sell: Global Values and International Trade Law . Taylor & Francis.

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S & Usynin, M 2020, Investment Chapters in PTAs and Their Impact on Adjudicative Convergence. in S Gaspar-Szilagyi, D Behn & M Langford (eds), Adjudicating Trade and Investment Disputes: Convergence or Divergence?. Cambridge University Press. <https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/adjudicating-trade-and-investment-disputes/investment-chapters-in-ptas-and-their-impact-on-adjudicative-convergence/872E15B36EE250B70CD4003BDFEB21A7>

Other contribution

Gaspar-Szilagyi, S & Usynin, M 2022, Case C 638/19 P, European Commission v. Micula et al. Does the Court of Justice of the EU misunderstand investment law and investment treaty arbitration?. International Economic Law and Policy Blog.

View all publications in research portal

Languages and other information

  • English: Professional Working Proficiency, Level C2, TOEFL IBT Certificate 2008, 114/120 points
  • Hungarian: Native
  • Romanian: Native
  • Italian: Advanced, Level B2/C1, Self-Taught
  • French: Lower Intermediate/Passive working knowledge, Level A2/B1, French Language courses 2010, Maastricht University
  • Danish/Norwegian: Lower Intermediate, Level A2/B1,LaerDansk Language Certificate 2013, Denmark
  • German: Beginner, Level A2, Colon Language Centre 2010, Hamburg
  • Spanish: Beginner, Level A2, self-taught

Media experience

  • Gáspár-Szilágyi & Usynin (2022) ‘Case C‑638/19 P, European Commission v. Micula et al. Does the Court of Justice of the EU misunderstand investment law and investment treaty arbitration?’, International Economic Law and Policy Blog [co-authored 60%]
  • Chamon, Verellen, and Gáspár-Szilágyi (2020), ‘To CETA or not to CETA: Reflections on ISDS and the Special Responsibility of National Parliaments, EJIL Talk [co-authored 33%]
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2019), ‘AG Bot in Opinion 1/17. The Autonomy of the EU Legal Order v. The Reasons why the CETA ICS might be Needed’, European Law Blog
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2018) ‘Brexit. Maybe not such bad news for intra-EU investment awards after Achmea?’, International Economic Law and Policy Blog
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2018) ‘The CJEU Strikes Again in Achmea. Is this the end of investor-State arbitration under intra-EU BITs?’, International Economic Law and Policy Blog
  • Lenk & Gáspár-Szilágyi (2017) ‘Case C-600/14, Germany v Council. More Clarity over ‘Facultative Mixity’?’, European Law Blog [co-authored 50%]
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2017) ‘Opinion 2/15: Maybe it is Time for the EU to Conclude Separate Trade and Investment Agreements’, European Law Blog
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2017) ‘A Follow-up to the EU Commission’s Decision to ‘Split’ Trade and Investment Protection’, International Economic Law and Policy Blog
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2016) ‘ISDS in EU FTIAs. Yes, No, Maybe? A Direct Enforcement Perspective’, European Law Blog
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2016) ‘International Trade and Investment Disputes. Convergence, Divergence and the Way Forward?’, PluriCourts Blog
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2016) ‘Joined Cases Aranyosi and Căldăraru. Converging Human Rights Standards, Mutual Trust and a New Ground for Postponing a European Arrest Warrant’, ACELG Blog
  • Gáspár-Szilágyi (2015) ‘Mutual Trust before the Court of Justice – a view from CJEU Judge Sacha Prechal’, ACELG Blog


  • United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (2022), Academic Forum Working Group Paper ‘Compliance with ISDS Awards: Empirical Perspectives and Reform Implications’, co-authored with Yuliya Chernykh, Malcolm Langford, Daniel Peat, Ole K. Fauchald, Sergio Puig, and Emilia Onyema. In this paper we informed the UN members about the current state of empirical knowledge on State compliance with adverse ISDS awards and proposed the setting up of a transparency mechanism.
  • My 2020 Co-authored CUP Book Adjudicating Trade and Investment Disputes: Convergence or Divergence? was mentioned in the 2020 Newsletter of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISDS)
  • United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Academic Forum (2019), Presentation on ‘Co-Opting Domestic Courts as Investment Courts’. This paper led to discussions in UNCITRAL ‘Working Group III on the reform of ISDS’ concerning the importance of looking at domestic courts when it comes to the enforcement of the rights of foreign investors.
  • Participating in stakeholder meetings organised by the EU Commission on the creation of a Multilateral Investment Court (2015-2019) in which, among others I spoke about the importance of domestic courts and to have an exhaustion of local remedies clause in case a Multilateral Investment Court is set up.
  • In 2018 while at PluriCourts Oslo helping to set up communication channels with the European Commission, which resulted in the chance to present our research to the EU Commission and EU Member States
  • European Parliament, Strasbourg (2018), Presentation on ‘The EU’s Cumbersome Investment Law and Policy, and its Effects on IP Protection’ in which I raised awareness about how the EU’s new investment policy and investment agreements can affect the protection of intellectual property rights.
  • European Parliament, Brussels (2016), Presentation on ‘Transparency, Investment Protection and the Role of the European Parliament’. I argued for the increased role of the EP in ensuring transparency during the negotiations of important trade and investment agreements by the EU, which also included clear proposals on how to achieve that goal.
  • In 2016 the Court of Justice of the EU included one of my publications (‘Joined Cases Aranyosi and Căldăraru. Converging Human Rights Standards, Mutual Trust and a New Ground for Postponing a European Arrest Warrant’) in its Legal Bibliography of European Integration.