Monica Lloyd

School of Psychology
Associate Professor in Forensic Psychology

Contact details

School of Psychology
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Monica Lloyd is a chartered and HCPC registered forensic psychologist who joined the University on retirement from Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service. She set up and continues to teach on the combined forensic clinical psychology doctorate training course, which started in 2013 and now has 15 alumni. Her specialism is the Psychology of Terrorism, which developed from working with terrorist offenders in custody. She continues to offer consultancy to the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism in the UK, is an Associate of the Centre for Research and Evidence in Security Threats (CREST) and a member of the expert pool for the European Radicalisation Awareness Network.


BA (Hons) Psychology (University of Exeter)
MSc in Applied Criminological Psychology (Birkbeck College)
Chartered Forensic Psychologist 1989
HCPC registered 2011
Elected Fellow of the BPS 2017


Monica Lloyd gained her professional qualifications within the Prison Service and over the course of her career worked in prisons, HM Inspectorate of Prisons and the National Offender Management Service (now HMPPS). She co-produced the methodology for assessing risk and needs in extremist offenders (the ERG22+) that has become a common assessment framework for the criminal justice system and informs the work of Prevent. She continues to work in the area of counter-terrorism, and part time as Training Coordinator for the joint forensic clincial doctorate programme.


Monica Lloyd acts as Training Coordinator for the Doctorate course in Forensic Clinical Psychology and teaches Theories of Extremism and Working with Extremist Offenders.

Postgraduate supervision

Students wishing to enquire about post-graduate supervision at the University should contact her via her University e mail.


Research interests

  • the psychology and extremism and terrorism
  • extremism risk assessment
  • extremism pathways and mental health
  • the mental health effects of solitary confinement
  • the psychology of lone actors
  • ethical guidelines for working with extremist offenders

Other activities

  • Member of the Editorial Board of the Prison Service Journal
  • Consultancy to the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism in the Home Office
  • Contributor to the Global Centre for Cooperative Security
  • European Commission: Radicalisation Awareness Network, from July 2020


Lloyd, M (2021) Radicalisation Awareness Network. Ethical Guidelines for Working for P/CVE in Mental Health Care. papers/docs/ran_ethical_guidelines_for_working_p-cve_mhc_2021_en.pdf

Lloyd, M. (2021) From Empirical Beginnings to Emerging Theory. In Eds: Corrado, R., Wössner, G. & Merari, A. NATO Science for Peace & Security Series. V.152. 259-279.

Lloyd, M. (2021) Making Sense of terrorist violence and building psychological expertise.  International Handbook of Threat Assessment. Second Edition. Eds. Meloy, R.J. & Hoffmann, J.  Oxford University Press. New York.

Lloyd, M. (2019) Extremist Risk Assessments: A Directory. Centre for Research and Evidence in Security Threats. 

Lloyd, M. (2019) Pathways into Terrorism in Eds: Yakeley, J. & Cundy, P. Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Fundamentalism, Radicalisation and Terrorism. Routledge.

Al-Attar, Z., Bates-Gaston, J., Dean, C., & Lloyd, M. (2018). Ethical Guidelines for applied psychological practice in the field of extremism, violent extremism and terrorism. British Psychological Society.

Logan, C. & Lloyd, M. (2018) Violent Extremism: A Comparison of Approaches to Assessing and Managing Risk. Journal of Legal and Criminological Psychology. 

Dean C., Lloyd, M., Keane, C., Powis, B., Randhawa K. (2018) Intervening with Extremist Offenders - A Pilot Study

Lloyd, M, & Kleinot, P. (2017) Pathways into Terrorism: the Good the Bad and the Ugly. The Journal of Psychoanalytic psychotherapy: Applications, Theory and Research.

Lloyd, M. (2016) Structured Guidelines for Assessing Risk in Extremist Offenders. Assessment and Development Matters, Vol 8, No 2. pp 15-18.  British Psychological Society. 

Lloyd, M. & Dean, C (2015)The Development of Structured Guidelines for Assessing Risk in Extremist Offenders. The Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, Vol 2, Issue 1. pp 40-52. 

Lloyd, M. & Bell, R. (2015) Guest Editor, Prison Service Journal special edition Working with People with Personality Disorder, no 218. 

Lloyd, M. (2012) Guest Editor, Prison Service Journal special edition Combating Extremism and Terrorism. No 203. 

Shalev, S. & Lloyd, M. (2011) “Though this be method, yet there is madness in’t”. Commentary on a one year longitudinal study of the psychological effects of administrative segregation. Corrections & Mental Health. 21 June 2011. 

Lloyd, M. & Shalev, S. (2009)Guest Editors, Prison Service Journal special edition Solitary Confinement. No 181. 

Shalev, S. (2008) Chapter 2 ‘The Health Effects of Solitary Confinement’ in A Sourcebook on Solitary Confinement.

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